Varun Varma


How to Improve Software Delivery Using DORA Metrics

In today's software development landscape, effective collaboration among teams and seamless service orchestration are essential. Achieving these goals requires adherence to organizational standards for quality, security, and compliance. Without diligent monitoring, organizations risk losing sight of their delivery workflows, complicating the assessment of impacts on release velocity, stability, developer experience, and overall application performance.

To address these challenges, many organizations have begun tracking DevOps Research and Assessment (DORA) metrics. These metrics provide crucial insights for any team involved in software development, offering a comprehensive view of the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). DORA metrics are particularly useful for teams practising DevOps methodologies, including Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) and Site Reliability Engineering (SRE), which focus on enhancing system reliability.

However, the collection and analysis of these metrics can be complex. Decisions about which data points to track and how to gather them often fall to individual team leaders. Additionally, turning this data into actionable insights for engineering teams and leadership can be challenging. 

Understanding DORA DevOps Metrics

The DORA research team at Google conducts annual surveys of IT professionals to gather insights into industry-wide software delivery practices. From these surveys, four key metrics have emerged as indicators of software teams' performance, particularly regarding the speed and reliability of software deployment. These key DORA metrics include:

DORA metrics connect production-based metrics with development-based metrics, providing quantitative measures that complement qualitative insights into engineering performance. They focus on two primary aspects: speed and stability. Deployment frequency and lead time for changes relate to throughput, while time to restore services and change failure rate address stability.

Contrary to the historical view that speed and stability are opposing forces, research from DORA indicates a strong correlation between these metrics in terms of overall performance. Additionally, these metrics often correlate with key indicators of system success, such as availability, thus offering insights that benefit application performance, reliability, delivery workflows, and developer experience.

Collecting and Analyzing DORA Metrics

While DORA DevOps metrics may seem straightforward, measuring them can involve ambiguity, leading teams to make challenging decisions about which data points to use. Below are guidelines and best practices to ensure accurate and actionable DORA metrics.

Defining the Scope

Establishing a standardized process for monitoring DORA metrics can be complicated due to differing internal procedures and tools across teams. Clearly defining the scope of your analysis—whether for a specific department or a particular aspect of the delivery process—can simplify this effort. It’s essential to consider the type and amount of work involved in different analyses and standardize data points to align with team, departmental, or organizational goals.

For example, platform engineering teams focused on improving delivery workflows may prioritize metrics like deployment frequency and lead time for changes. In contrast, SRE teams focused on application stability might prioritize change failure rate and time to restore service. By scoping metrics to specific repositories, services, and teams, organizations can gain detailed insights that help prioritize impactful changes.

Best Practices for Defining Scope:

  • Engage Stakeholders: Involve stakeholders from various teams (development, QA, operations) to understand their specific needs and objectives.
  • Set Clear Goals: Establish clear goals for what you aim to achieve with DORA metrics, such as improving deployment frequency or reducing change failure rates.
  • Prioritize Based on Objectives: Depending on your team's goals, prioritize metrics accordingly. For example, teams focused on enhancing deployment speed should emphasize deployment frequency and lead time for changes.
  • Standardize Definitions: Create standardized definitions for metrics across teams to ensure consistency in data collection and analysis.

Standardizing Data Collection

To maintain consistency in collecting DORA metrics, address the following questions:

1. What constitutes a successful deployment?

Establish clear criteria for what defines a successful deployment within your organization. Consider the different standards various teams might have regarding deployment stages. For instance, at what point do you consider a progressive release to be "executed"?

2. What defines a failure or response?

Clarify definitions for system failures and incidents to ensure consistency in measuring change failure rates. Differentiate between incidents and failures based on factors such as application performance and service level objectives (SLOs). For example, consider whether to exclude infrastructure-related issues from DORA metrics.

3. When does an incident begin and end?

Determine relevant data points for measuring the start and resolution of incidents, which are critical for calculating time to restore services. Decide whether to measure from when an issue is detected, when an incident is created, or when a fix is deployed.

4. What time spans should be used for analysis?

Select appropriate time frames for analyzing data, taking into account factors like organization size, the age of the technology stack, delivery methodology, and key performance indicators (KPIs). Adjust time spans to align with the frequency of deployments to ensure realistic and comprehensive metrics.

Best Practices for Standardizing Data Collection:

  • Develop Clear Guidelines: Establish clear guidelines and definitions for each metric to minimize ambiguity.
  • Automate Data Collection: Implement automation tools to ensure consistent data collection across teams, thereby reducing human error.
  • Conduct Regular Reviews: Regularly review and update definitions and guidelines to keep them relevant and accurate.

Utilizing DORA Metrics to Enhance CI/CD Workflows

Establishing a Baseline

Before diving into improvements, it’s crucial to establish a baseline for your current continuous integration and continuous delivery performance using DORA metrics. This involves gathering historical data to understand where your organization stands in terms of deployment frequency, lead time, change failure rate, and MTTR. This baseline will serve as a reference point to measure the impact of any changes you implement.

Analyzing Deployment Frequency

Actionable Insights: If your deployment frequency is low, it may indicate issues with your CI/CD pipeline or development process. Investigate potential causes, such as manual steps in deployment, inefficient testing procedures, or coordination issues among team members.

Strategies for Improvement:

  • Automate Testing and Deployment: Implement automated testing frameworks that allow for continuous integration, enabling more frequent and reliable deployments.
  • Adopt Feature Toggles: This technique allows teams to deploy code without exposing it to users immediately, increasing deployment frequency without compromising stability.

Reducing Lead Time for Changes

Actionable Insights: Long change lead time often points to inefficiencies in the development process. By analyzing your CI/CD pipeline, you can identify delays caused by manual approval processes, inadequate testing, or other obstacles.

Strategies for Improvement:

  • Streamline Code Reviews: Establish clear guidelines and practices for code reviews to minimize bottlenecks.
  • Use Branching Strategies: Adopt effective branching strategies (like trunk-based development) that promote smaller, incremental changes, making the integration process smoother.

Lowering Change Failure Rate

Actionable Insights: A high change failure rate is a clear sign that the quality of code changes needs improvement. This can be due to inadequate testing or rushed deployments.

Strategies for Improvement:

  • Enhance Testing Practices: Implement comprehensive automated tests, including unit, integration, and end-to-end tests, to ensure quality before deployment.
  • Conduct Post-Mortems: Analyze failures to identify root causes and learn from them. Use this knowledge to adjust processes and prevent similar issues in the future.

Improving Mean Time to Recover (MTTR)

Actionable Insights: If your MTTR is high, it suggests challenges in incident management and response capabilities. This can lead to longer downtimes and reduced user trust.

Strategies for Improvement:

  • Invest in Monitoring and Observability: Implement robust monitoring tools to quickly detect and diagnose issues, allowing for rapid recovery.
  • Create Runbooks: Develop detailed runbooks that outline recovery procedures for common incidents, enabling your team to respond quickly and effectively.

Continuous Improvement Cycle

Utilizing DORA metrics is not a one-time activity but part of an ongoing process of continuous improvement. Establish a regular review cycle where teams assess their DORA metrics and adjust practices accordingly. This creates a culture of accountability and encourages teams to seek out ways to improve their CI/CD workflows continually.

Case Studies: Real-World Applications

1. Etsy

Etsy, an online marketplace, adopted DORA metrics to assess and enhance its CI/CD workflows. By focusing on improving its deployment frequency and lead time for changes, Etsy was able to increase deployment frequency from once a week to multiple times a day, significantly improving responsiveness to customer needs.

2. Flickr

Flickr used DORA metrics to track its change failure rate. By implementing rigorous automated testing and post-mortem analysis, Flickr reduced its change failure rate significantly, leading to a more stable production environment.

3. Google

Google's Site Reliability Engineering (SRE) teams utilize DORA metrics to inform their practices. By focusing on MTTR, Google has established an industry-leading incident response culture, resulting in rapid recovery from outages and high service reliability.

Leveraging Typo for Monitoring DORA Metrics

Typo is a powerful tool designed specifically for tracking and analyzing DORA metrics. It provides an efficient solution for development teams seeking precision in their DevOps performance measurement.

  • With pre-built integrations in the dev tool stack, the DORA metrics dashboard provides all the relevant data within minutes.
  • It helps in deep diving and correlating different metrics to identify real-time bottlenecks, sprint delays, blocked PRs, deployment efficiency, and much more from a single dashboard.
  • The dashboard sets custom improvement goals for each team and tracks their success in real time.
  • It gives real-time visibility into a team’s KPI and lets them make informed decisions.

Mastering Developer Productivity with the SPACE Framework

In the crazy world of software development, getting developers to be productive is like finding the Holy Grail for tech companies. When developers hit their stride, turning out valuable work at breakneck speed, it’s a win for everyone. But let’s be honest—traditional productivity metrics, like counting lines of code or tracking hours spent fixing bugs, are about as helpful as a screen door on a submarine.

Say hello to the SPACE framework: your new go-to for cracking the code on developer productivity. This approach doesn’t just dip a toe in the water—it dives in headfirst to give you a clear, comprehensive view of how your team is doing. With the SPACE framework, you’ll ensure your developers aren’t just busy—they’re busy being awesome and delivering top-quality work on the dot. So buckle up, because we’re about to take your team’s productivity to the next level!

Introduction to the SPACE Framework

The SPACE framework is a modern approach to measuring developer productivity, introduced in a 2021 paper by experts from GitHub and Microsoft Research. This framework goes beyond traditional metrics to provide a more accurate and holistic view of productivity.

Nicole Forsgren, the lead author, emphasizes that measuring productivity by lines of code or speed can be misleading. The SPACE framework integrates several key metrics to give a complete picture of developer productivity.

Detailed Breakdown of SPACE Metrics

The five SPACE framework dimensions are:

Satisfaction and Well-being

When developers are happy and healthy, they tend to be more productive. If they enjoy their work and maintain a good work-life balance, they're more likely to produce high-quality results. On the other hand, dissatisfaction and burnout can severely hinder productivity. For example, a study by Haystack Analytics found that during the COVID-19 pandemic, 81% of software developers experienced burnout, which significantly impacted their productivity. The SPACE framework encourages regular surveys to gauge developer satisfaction and well-being, helping you address any issues promptly.


Traditional metrics often measure performance by the number of features added or bugs fixed. However, this approach can be problematic. According to the SPACE framework, performance should be evaluated based on outcomes rather than output. This means assessing whether the code reliably meets its intended purpose, the time taken to complete tasks, customer satisfaction, and code reliability.


Activity metrics are commonly used to gauge developer productivity because they are easy to quantify. However, they only provide a limited view. Developer Activity is the count of actions or outputs completed over time, such as coding new features or conducting code reviews. While useful, activity metrics alone cannot capture the full scope of productivity.

Nicole Forsgren points out that factors like overtime, inconsistent hours, and support systems also affect activity metrics. Therefore, it's essential to consider routine tasks like meetings, issue resolution, and brainstorming sessions when measuring activity.

Collaboration and Communication

Effective communication and collaboration are crucial for any development team's success. Poor communication can lead to project failures, as highlighted by 86% of employees in a study who cited ineffective communication as a major reason for business failures. The SPACE framework suggests measuring collaboration through metrics like the discoverability of documentation, integration speed, quality of work reviews, and network connections within the team.

Efficiency and Flow

Flow is a state of deep focus where developers can achieve high levels of productivity. Interruptions and distractions can break this flow, making it challenging to return to the task at hand. The SPACE framework recommends tracking metrics such as the frequency and timing of interruptions, the time spent in various workflow stages, and the ease with which developers maintain their flow.

Benefits of the SPACE Framework

The SPACE framework offers several advantages over traditional productivity metrics. By considering multiple dimensions, it provides a more nuanced view of developer productivity. This comprehensive approach helps avoid the pitfalls of single metrics, such as focusing solely on lines of code or closed tickets, which can lead to gaming the system.

Moreover, the SPACE framework allows you to measure both the quantity and quality of work, ensuring that developers deliver high-quality software efficiently. This integrated view helps organizations make informed decisions about team productivity and optimize their workflows for better outcomes.

Implementing the SPACE Framework in Your Organization

Implementing the SPACE productivity framework effectively requires careful planning and execution. Below is a comprehensive plan and roadmap to guide you through the process. This detailed guide will help you tailor the SPACE framework to your organization's unique needs and ensure a smooth transition to this advanced productivity measurement approach.

Step 1: Understanding Your Current State

Objective: Establish a baseline by understanding your current productivity measurement practices and developer workflow.

  1. Conduct a Productivity Audit
    • Review existing metrics and tools like Typo used for tracking productivity. 
    • Identify gaps and limitations in current measurement methods.
    • Gather feedback from developers and managers on existing practices.
  2. Analyze Team Dynamics and Workflow
    • Map out your development process, identifying key stages and tasks.
    • Observe how teams collaborate, communicate, and handle interruptions.
    • Assess the overall satisfaction and well-being of your developers.

Outcome: A comprehensive report detailing your current productivity measurement practices, team dynamics, and workflow processes.

Step 2: Setting Goals and Objectives

Objective: Define clear goals and objectives for implementing the SPACE framework.

  1. Identify Key Business Objectives
    • Align the goals of the SPACE framework with your company's strategic objectives.
    • Focus on improving areas such as time-to-market, code quality, customer satisfaction, and developer well-being.
  2. Set Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, and Time-bound (SMART) Goals
    • Example Goals
      • Increase developer satisfaction by 20% within six months.
      • Reduce average bug resolution time by 30% over the next quarter.
      • Improve code review quality scores by 15% within the next year.

Outcome: A set of SMART goals that will guide the implementation of the SPACE framework.

Step 3: Selecting and Customizing SPACE Metrics

Objective: Choose the most relevant SPACE metrics and customize them to fit your organization's needs.

  1. Review SPACE Metrics
    • Satisfaction and Well-being
    • Performance
    • Activity
    • Collaboration and Communication
    • Efficiency and Flow
  2. Customize Metrics
    • Tailor each metric to align with your organization's specific context and objectives.
    • Example Customizations
      • Satisfaction and Well-being: Conduct quarterly surveys to measure job satisfaction and work-life balance.
      • Performance: Track the reliability of code and customer feedback on delivered features.
      • Activity: Measure the number of completed tasks, code commits, and other relevant activities.
      • Collaboration and Communication: Monitor the quality of code reviews and the speed of integrating work.
      • Efficiency and Flow: Track the frequency and duration of interruptions and the time spent in flow states.

Outcome: A customized set of SPACE metrics tailored to your organization's needs.

Step 4: Implementing Measurement Tools and Processes

Objective: Implement tools and processes to measure and track the selected SPACE metrics.

  1. Choose Appropriate Tools
    • Use project management tools like Jira or Trello to track activity and performance metrics.
    • Implement collaboration tools such as Slack, Microsoft Teams, or Confluence to facilitate communication and knowledge sharing.
    • Utilize code review tools like CodeIQ by Typo to monitor the quality of code and collaboration.
  2. Set Up Data Collection Processes
    • Establish processes for collecting and analyzing data for each metric.
    • Ensure that data collection is automated wherever possible to reduce manual effort and improve accuracy.
  3. Train Your Team
    • Provide training sessions for developers and managers on using the new tools and understanding the SPACE metrics.
    • Encourage open communication and address any concerns or questions from the team.

Outcome: A fully implemented set of tools and processes for measuring and tracking SPACE metrics.

Step 5: Regular Monitoring and Review

Objective: Continuously monitor and review the metrics to ensure ongoing improvement.

  1. Establish Regular Review Cycles
    • Conduct monthly or quarterly reviews of the SPACE metrics to track progress towards goals.
    • Hold team meetings to discuss the results, identify areas for improvement, and celebrate successes.
  2. Analyze Trends and Patterns
    • Look for trends and patterns in the data to gain insights into team performance and productivity.
    • Use these insights to make informed decisions and adjustments to workflows and processes.
  3. Solicit Feedback
    • Regularly gather feedback from developers and managers on the effectiveness of the SPACE framework.
    • Use this feedback to make continuous improvements to the framework and its implementation.

Outcome: A robust monitoring and review process that ensures the ongoing effectiveness of the SPACE framework.

Step 6: Continuous Improvement and Adaptation

Objective: Adapt and improve the SPACE framework based on feedback and evolving needs.

  1. Iterate and Improve
    • Continuously refine and improve the SPACE metrics based on feedback and observed results.
    • Adapt the framework to address new challenges and opportunities as they arise.
  2. Foster a Culture of Continuous Improvement
    • Encourage a culture of continuous improvement within your development teams.
    • Promote openness to change and a willingness to experiment with new ideas and approaches.
  3. Share Success Stories
    • Share success stories and best practices with the broader organization to demonstrate the value of the SPACE framework.
    • Use these stories to inspire other teams and encourage the adoption of the framework across the organization.

Outcome: A dynamic and adaptable SPACE framework that evolves with your organization's needs.


Implementing the SPACE framework is a strategic investment in your organization's productivity and success. By following this comprehensive plan and roadmap, you can effectively integrate the SPACE metrics into your development process, leading to improved performance, satisfaction, and overall productivity. Embrace the journey of continuous improvement and leverage the insights gained from the SPACE framework to unlock the full potential of your development teams.

Comparative Analysis of DevOps and Platform Engineering

There are two essential concepts in contemporary software engineering: DevOps and Platform Engineering.

In this article, We dive into how DevOps has revolutionized the industry, explore the emerging role of Platform Engineering, and compare their distinct methodologies and impacts.

What is DevOps?

DevOps is a cultural and technical movement aimed at unifying software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) to improve collaboration, streamline processes, and enhance the speed and quality of software delivery. The primary goal of DevOps is to create a more cohesive, continuous workflow from development through to production.

Key Principles of DevOps

  • Automation: Automating repetitive tasks to increase efficiency and reduce errors.
  • Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (CI/CD): Integrating code changes frequently and automating the deployment process to ensure rapid, reliable releases.
  • Collaboration and Communication: Fostering a culture of shared responsibility between development and operations teams.
  • Monitoring and Logging: Continuously monitoring applications and infrastructure to identify issues early and improve performance.
  • Infrastructure as Code (IaC): Managing and provisioning computing infrastructure through machine-readable definition files.

What is Platform Engineering?

Platform engineering is the practice of designing and building toolchains and workflows that enable self-service capabilities for software engineering organizations in the cloud-native era. It focuses on creating internal developer platforms (IDPs) that provide standardized environments and services for development teams.

Key Principles of Platform Engineering

  • Self-Service Interfaces: Providing developers with easy access to environments, tools, and infrastructure.
  • Standardization and Consistency: Ensuring that environments and workflows are consistent across different projects and teams.
  • Scalability and Flexibility: Designing platforms that can scale with organizational needs and accommodate different technologies and workflows.
  • Security and Compliance: Embedding security and compliance checks within the platform to ensure that applications meet organizational and regulatory standards.
  • Developer Experience: Improving the overall developer experience by reducing friction and enabling faster delivery cycles.

Comparative Analysis of DevOps and Platform Engineering


Technical Foundations

Architectural Differences

Toolchains and Technologies

Processes and Workflows

Operational Impact


DevOps and Platform Engineering offer different yet complementary approaches to enhancing software development and delivery. DevOps focuses on cultural integration and automation, while Platform Engineering emphasizes providing a robust, scalable infrastructure platform. By understanding these technical distinctions, organizations can make informed decisions to optimize their software development processes and achieve their operational goals.

Implementing DORA DevOps Metrics in Large Organizations


In software engineering, aligning your work with business goals is crucial. For startups, this is often straightforward. Small teams work closely together, and objectives are tightly aligned. However, in large enterprises where multiple teams are working on different products with varied timelines, this alignment becomes much more complex. In these scenarios, effective communication with leadership and establishing standard metrics to assess engineering performance is key. DORA Metrics is a set of key performance indicators that help organizations measure and improve their software delivery performance.

But first, let’s understand in brief how engineering works in startups vs. large enterprises -

Software Engineering in Startups: A Focused Approach

In startups, small, cross-functional teams work towards a single goal: rapidly developing and delivering a product that meets market needs. The proximity to business objectives is close, and the feedback loop is short. Decision-making is quick, and pivoting based on customer feedback is common. Here, the primary focus is on speed and innovation, with less emphasis on process and documentation.

Success in a startup's engineering efforts can often be measured by a few key metrics: time-to-market, user acquisition rates, and customer satisfaction. These metrics directly reflect the company's ability to achieve its business goals. This simple approach allows for quick adjustments and real-time alignment of engineering efforts with business objectives.

Engineering Goals in Large Enterprises: A Complex Landscape

Large enterprises operate in a vastly different environment. Multiple teams work on various products, each with its own roadmap, release schedules, and dependencies. The scale and complexity of operations require a structured approach to ensure that all teams align with broader organizational goals.

In such settings, communication between teams and leadership becomes more formalized, and standard metrics to assess performance and progress are critical. Unlike startups, where the impact of engineering efforts is immediately visible, large enterprises need a consolidated view of various performance indicators to understand how engineering work contributes to business objectives.

The Challenge of Communication and Metrics in Large Organizations

Effective communication in large organizations involves not just sharing information but ensuring that it's understood and acted upon across all levels. Engineering teams must communicate their progress, challenges, and needs to leadership in a manner that is both comprehensive and actionable. This requires a common language of metrics that can accurately represent the state of development efforts.

Standard metrics are essential for providing this common language. They offer a way to objectively assess the performance of engineering teams, identify areas for improvement, and make informed decisions. However, the selection of these metrics is crucial. They must be relevant, actionable, and aligned with business goals.

Introducing DORA Metrics

DORA Metrics, developed by the DevOps Research and Assessment team, provide a robust framework for measuring the performance and efficiency of software delivery in DevOps and platform engineering. These metrics focus on key aspects of software development and delivery that directly impact business outcomes.

The four primary DORA Metrics are:

These metrics provide a comprehensive view of the software delivery pipeline, from development to deployment and operational stability. By focusing on these key areas, organizations can drive improvements in their DevOps practices and enhance overall developer efficiency.

Using DORA Metrics in DevOps and Platform Engineering

In large enterprises, the application of DORA Metrics can significantly improve developer efficiency and software delivery processes. Here’s how these metrics can be used effectively:

  1. Deployment Frequency: It is a key indicator of agility and efficiency.
    • Goal: Increase the frequency of deployments to ensure that new features and fixes are delivered to customers quickly.
    • Action: Encourage practices such as Continuous Integration and Continuous Deployment (CI/CD) to automate the build and release process. Monitor deployment frequency across teams to identify bottlenecks and areas for improvement.
  2. Lead Time for Changes: It tracks the speed and efficiency of software delivery. some text
    • Goal: Reduce the time it takes for changes to go from commit to production.
    • Action: Streamline the development pipeline by automating testing, reducing manual interventions, and optimizing code review processes. Use tools that provide visibility into the pipeline to identify delays and optimize workflows.
  3. Mean Time to Recover (MTTR): It concentrates on determining efficiency and effectiveness. some text
    • Goal: Minimize downtime when incidents occur to ensure high availability and reliability of services.
    • Action: Implement robust monitoring and alerting systems to quickly detect and diagnose issues. Foster a culture of incident response and post-mortem analysis to continuously improve response times.
  4. Change Failure Rate: It reflects reliability and efficiency. some text
    • Goal: Reduce the percentage of changes that fail in production to ensure a stable and reliable release process.
    • Action: Implement practices such as automated testing, code reviews, and canary deployments to catch issues early. Track failure rates and use the data to improve testing and deployment processes.

Integrating DORA Metrics with Other Software Engineering Metrics

While DORA Metrics provide a solid foundation for measuring DevOps performance, they are not exhaustive. Integrating them with other software engineering metrics can provide a more holistic view of engineering performance. Some additional metrics to consider include:

Development Cycle Efficiency:

Metrics: Lead Time for Changes and Deployment Frequency

High Deployment Frequency, Swift Lead Time:

Teams with rapid deployment frequency and short lead time exhibit agile development practices. These efficient processes lead to quick feature releases and bug fixes, ensuring dynamic software development aligned with market demands and ultimately enhancing customer satisfaction.

Low Deployment Frequency despite Swift Lead Time:

A short lead time coupled with infrequent deployments signals potential bottlenecks. Identifying these bottlenecks is vital. Streamlining deployment processes in line with development speed is essential for a software development process.

Code Review Excellence:

Metrics: Comments per PR and Change Failure Rate

Few Comments per PR, Low Change Failure Rate:

Low comments and minimal deployment failures signify high-quality initial code submissions. This scenario highlights exceptional collaboration and communication within the team, resulting in stable deployments and satisfied end-users.

Abundant Comments per PR, Minimal Change Failure Rate:

Teams with numerous comments per PR and a few deployment issues showcase meticulous review processes. Investigating these instances ensures review comments align with deployment stability concerns, ensuring constructive feedback leads to refined code.

Developer Responsiveness:

Metrics: Commits after PR Review and Deployment Frequency

Frequent Commits after PR Review, High Deployment Frequency:

Rapid post-review commits and a high deployment frequency reflect agile responsiveness to feedback. This iterative approach, driven by quick feedback incorporation, yields reliable releases, fostering customer trust and satisfaction.

Sparse Commits after PR Review, High Deployment Frequency:

Despite few post-review commits, high deployment frequency signals comprehensive pre-submission feedback integration. Emphasizing thorough code reviews assures stable deployments, showcasing the team’s commitment to quality.

Quality Deployments:

Metrics: Change Failure Rate and Mean Time to Recovery (MTTR)

Low Change Failure Rate, Swift MTTR:

Low deployment failures and a short recovery time exemplify quality deployments and efficient incident response. Robust testing and a prepared incident response strategy minimize downtime, ensuring high-quality releases and exceptional user experiences.

High Change Failure Rate, Rapid MTTR:

A high failure rate alongside swift recovery signifies a team adept at identifying and rectifying deployment issues promptly. Rapid responses minimize impact, allowing quick recovery and valuable learning from failures, strengthening the team’s resilience.

Impact of PR Size on Deployment:

Metrics: Large PR Size and Deployment Frequency

The size of pull requests (PRs) profoundly influences deployment timelines. Correlating Large PR Size with Deployment Frequency enables teams to gauge the effect of extensive code changes on release cycles.

High Deployment Frequency despite Large PR Size:

Maintaining a high deployment frequency with substantial PRs underscores effective testing and automation. Acknowledge this efficiency while monitoring potential code intricacies, ensuring stability amid complexity.

Low Deployment Frequency with Large PR Size:

Infrequent deployments with large PRs might signal challenges in testing or review processes. Dividing large tasks into manageable portions accelerates deployments, addressing potential bottlenecks effectively.

PR Size and Code Quality:

Metrics: Large PR Size and Change Failure Rate

PR size significantly influences code quality and stability. Analyzing Large PR Size alongside Change Failure Rate allows engineering leaders to assess the link between PR complexity and deployment stability.

High Change Failure Rate with Large PR Size:

Frequent deployment failures with extensive PRs indicate the need for rigorous testing and validation. Encourage breaking down large changes into testable units, bolstering stability and confidence in deployments.

Low Change Failure Rate despite Large PR Size:

A minimal failure rate with substantial PRs signifies robust testing practices. Focus on clear team communication to ensure everyone comprehends the implications of significant code changes, sustaining a stable development environment.Leveraging these correlations empowers engineering teams to make informed, data-driven decisions — a great way to drive business outcomes— optimizing workflows, and boosting overall efficiency. These insights chart a course for continuous improvement, nurturing a culture of collaboration, quality, and agility in software development endeavors.

By combining DORA Metrics with these additional metrics, organizations can gain a comprehensive understanding of their engineering performance and make more informed decisions to drive continuous improvement.

Leveraging Software Engineering Intelligence (SEI) Platforms

As organizations grow, the need for sophisticated tools to manage and analyze engineering metrics becomes apparent. This is where Software Engineering Intelligence (SEI) platforms come into play. SEI platforms like Typo aggregate data from various sources, including version control systems, CI/CD pipelines, project management tools, and incident management systems, to provide a unified view of engineering performance.

Benefits of SEI platforms include:

  • Centralized Metrics Dashboard: A single source of truth for all engineering metrics, providing visibility across teams and projects.
  • Advanced Analytics: Use machine learning and data analytics to identify patterns, predict outcomes, and recommend actions.
  • Customizable Reports: Generate tailored reports for different stakeholders, from engineering teams to executive leadership.
  • Real-time Monitoring: Track key metrics in real-time to quickly identify and address issues.

By leveraging SEI platforms, large organizations can harness the power of data to drive strategic decision-making and continuous improvement in their engineering practices.


In large organizations, aligning engineering work with business goals requires effective communication and the use of standardized metrics. DORA Metrics provides a robust framework for measuring the performance of DevOps and platform engineering, enabling organizations to improve developer efficiency and software delivery processes. By integrating DORA Metrics with other software engineering metrics and leveraging Software Engineering Intelligence platforms, organizations can gain a comprehensive understanding of their engineering performance and drive continuous improvement.

Using DORA Metrics in large organizations not only helps in measuring and enhancing performance but also fosters a culture of data-driven decision-making, ultimately leading to better business outcomes. As the industry continues to evolve, staying abreast of best practices and leveraging advanced tools will be key to maintaining a competitive edge in the software development landscape.

Impact of DORA Metrics on SPACE Efficiency in Software Development


Efficiency in software development is crucial for delivering high-quality products quickly and reliably. This research investigates the impact of DORA (DevOps Research and Assessment) Metrics — Deployment Frequency, Lead Time for Changes, Mean Time to Recover (MTTR), and Change Failure Rate — on efficiency within the SPACE framework (Satisfaction, Performance, Activity, Collaboration, Efficiency). Through detailed mathematical calculations, correlation with business metrics, and a case study of one of our customers, this study provides empirical evidence of their influence on operational efficiency, customer satisfaction, and financial performance in software development organizations.


Efficiency is a fundamental aspect of successful software development, influencing productivity, cost-effectiveness, and customer satisfaction. The DORA Metrics serve as standardized benchmarks to assess and enhance software delivery performance across various dimensions. This paper aims to explore the quantitative impact of these metrics on SPACE efficiency and their correlation with key business metrics, providing insights into how organizations can optimize their software development processes for competitive advantage.

Literature Review

Previous research has highlighted the significance of DORA Metrics in improving software delivery performance and organizational agility (Forsgren et al., 2020). However, detailed empirical studies demonstrating their specific impact on SPACE efficiency and business metrics remain limited, warranting comprehensive analysis and calculation-based research.


Case Study Design: one of our customers in the US — A B2B SaaS Company with 120+ Engineers

Selection Criteria: A leading SaaS company based in the US, was chosen for this case study due to its scale and complexity in software development operations. With over 120 engineers distributed across various teams, the customer faced challenges related to deployment efficiency, reliability, and customer satisfaction.

Data Collection: Utilized the customer’s internal metrics and tools, including deployment logs, incident reports, customer feedback surveys, and performance dashboards. The study focused on a period of 12 months to capture seasonal variations and long-term trends in software delivery performance.

Contextual Insights: Gathered qualitative insights through interviews with the customer’s development and operations teams. These interviews provided valuable context on existing challenges, process bottlenecks, and strategic goals for improving software delivery efficiency.

Selection and Calculation of DORA Metrics

Deployment Frequency: Calculated as the number of deployments per unit time (e.g., per day).

Example: They increased their deployment frequency from 3 deployments per week to 15 deployments per week during the study period.


Insight: Higher deployment frequency facilitated faster feature delivery and responsiveness to market demands.

Lead Time for Changes: Measured from code commit to deployment completion.

Example: Lead time reduced from 7 days to 1 day due to process optimizations and automation efforts.


Insight: Shorter lead times enabled TYPO’s customer to swiftly adapt to customer feedback and market changes.

MTTR (Mean Time to Recover): Calculated as the average time taken to restore service after an incident.

Example: MTTR decreased from 4 hours to 30 minutes through improved incident response protocols and automated recovery mechanisms.


Insight: Reduced MTTR enhanced system reliability and minimized service disruptions.

Change Failure Rate: Determined by dividing the number of failed deployments by the total number of deployments.

Example: Change failure rate decreased from 8% to 1% due to enhanced testing protocols and deployment automation.

Insight: Lower change failure rate improved product stability and customer satisfaction.

Correlation with Business Metrics

Revenue Growth: TYPO’s customer achieved a 25% increase in revenue attributed to faster time-to-market and improved customer satisfaction.

Customer Satisfaction: Improved Net Promoter Score (NPS) from 8 to 9, indicating higher customer loyalty and retention rates.

Employee Productivity: Increased by 30% as teams spent less time on firefighting and more on innovation and feature development.


The findings from our customer case study illustrate a clear correlation between improved DORA Metrics, enhanced SPACE efficiency, and positive business outcomes. By optimizing Deployment Frequency, Lead Time for Changes, MTTR, and Change Failure Rate, organizations can achieve significant improvements in operational efficiency, customer satisfaction, and financial performance. These results underscore the importance of data-driven decision-making and continuous improvement practices in software development.

How Typo Leverages DORA Metrics?

Typo is an intelligent engineering management platform used for gaining visibility, removing blockers, and maximizing developer effectiveness. Typo’s user-friendly interface and cutting-edge capabilities set it apart in the competitive landscape. Users can tailor the DORA metrics dashboard to their specific needs, providing a personalized and efficient monitoring experience. It provides a user-friendly interface and integrates with DevOps tools to ensure a smooth data flow for accurate metric representation.


In conclusion, leveraging DORA Metrics within software development processes enables organisations to streamline operations, accelerate innovation, and maintain a competitive edge in the market. By aligning these metrics with business objectives and systematically improving their deployment practices, companies can achieve sustainable growth and strategic advantages. Future research should continue to explore emerging trends in DevOps and their implications for optimizing software delivery performance.

Next Steps

Moving forward, Typo and similar organizations consider the following next steps based on the insights gained from this study:

  • Continuous Optimization: Implement continuous optimization practices to further enhance DORA Metrics and sustain efficiency gains.
  • Expansion of Metrics: Explore additional DORA Metrics and benchmarks to capture broader aspects of software delivery performance.
  • Industry Collaboration: Engage in industry collaborations and benchmarking exercises to validate and benchmark performance against peers.
  • Technology Integration: Invest in advanced technologies such as AI and machine learning to automate and optimize software delivery processes further.


  • Forsgren, N., Humble, J., & Kim, G. (2020). Accelerate: The Science of Lean Software and DevOps: Building and Scaling High Performing Technology Organizations. IT Revolution Press.

State of DevOps Report 2023 Highlights

Although we are somewhat late in presenting this summary, the insights from the 2023 State of DevOps Report remain highly relevant and valuable for the industry. The DevOps Research and Assessment (DORA) program has significantly influenced software development practices over the past decade. Each year, the State of DevOps Report provides a detailed analysis of the practices and capabilities that drive success in software delivery, offering benchmarks that teams can use to evaluate their own performance. This blog summarizes the key findings from the 2023 report, incorporates additional data and insights from industry developments, and introduces the role of the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) platform as highlighted by Gartner in 2024.

Overview of the 2023 Report

The 2023 State of DevOps Report draws from responses provided by over 36,000 professionals across various industries and organizational sizes. This year’s research emphasizes three primary outcomes:

  1. Organizational Performance: Generating value for customers and the community, extending beyond just revenue metrics.
  2. Team Performance: Evaluating teams’ ability to innovate and collaborate effectively.
  3. Employee Well-being: Assessing the impact of organizational strategies on reducing burnout and enhancing job satisfaction and productivity.

Additionally, the report examines two key performance measures:

  • Software Delivery Performance: The efficiency and safety of teams in implementing changes in technology systems.
  • Operational Performance: The reliability and quality of the user experience provided.

Key Takeaways from the Report

Culture Is Critical

The 2023 report highlights the crucial role of culture in developing technical capabilities and driving performance. Teams with a generative culture — characterized by high levels of trust, autonomy, open information flow, and a focus on learning from failures rather than assigning blame — achieve, on average, 30% higher organizational performance. This type of culture is essential for fostering innovation, collaboration, and continuous improvement.

Building a successful organizational culture requires a combination of everyday practices and strategic leadership. Practitioners shape culture through their daily actions, promoting collaboration and trust. Transformational leadership is also vital, emphasizing the importance of a supportive environment that encourages experimentation and autonomy.

User-Centric Approach

A significant finding in this year’s report is that a user-centric approach to software development is a strong predictor of organizational performance. Teams with a strong focus on user needs show 40% higher organizational performance and a 20% increase in job satisfaction. Leaders can foster an environment that prioritizes user value by creating incentive structures that reward teams for delivering meaningful user value rather than merely producing features.

Generative AI: Early Stages

An intriguing insight from the report is that the use of Generative AI, such as coding assistants, has not yet shown a significant impact on performance. This is likely because larger enterprises are slower to adopt emerging technologies. However, as adoption increases and more data becomes available, this trend is expected to evolve.

Investing in Technical Capabilities

Investing in technical capabilities like continuous integration and delivery, trunk-based development, and loosely coupled architectures leads to substantial improvements in performance. For example, reducing code review times can improve software delivery performance by up to 50%. High-quality documentation further enhances these technical practices, with trunk-based development showing a 12.8x greater impact on organizational performance when supported by quality documentation.

Cloud Computing Enhances Flexibility

Leveraging cloud platforms significantly enhances flexibility and, consequently, performance. Using a public cloud platform increases infrastructure flexibility by 22% compared to other environments. While multi-cloud strategies also improve flexibility, they can introduce complexity in managing governance, compliance, and risk. To maximize the benefits of cloud computing, organizations should modernize and refactor workloads to exploit the cloud’s flexibility rather than simply migrating existing infrastructure.

Equitable Work Distribution

The report indicates that individuals from underrepresented groups, including women and those who self-describe their gender, experience higher levels of burnout and are more likely to engage in repetitive work. Implementing formal processes to distribute work evenly can help reduce burnout. However, further efforts are needed to extend these benefits to all underrepresented groups.

Flexible Working Arrangements

The Covid-19 pandemic has reshaped working arrangements, with many employees working remotely. About 33% of respondents in this year’s survey work exclusively from home, while 63% work from home more often than an office. Although there is no conclusive evidence that remote work impacts team or organizational performance, flexibility in work arrangements correlates with increased value delivered to users and improved employee well-being. This flexibility also applies to new hires, with no observable increase in performance linked to office-based onboarding.

Actual Practices and Trends in DevOps

The 2023 report highlights several key practices that are driving success in DevOps:

️Continuous Integration/Continuous Delivery (CI/CD)

Implementing CI/CD pipelines is essential for automating the integration and delivery process. This practice allows teams to detect issues early, reduce integration problems, and deliver updates more frequently and reliably.

  • Google: Google has implemented CI/CD pipelines extensively across its development teams. This practice has enabled Google to push thousands of updates daily with minimal disruption. Automated testing and deployment ensure that new code is integrated seamlessly, significantly reducing the risk of integration issues.
  • Netflix: Known for its high-frequency deployments, Netflix utilizes a CI/CD pipeline that includes automated testing, canary releases, and real-time monitoring. This approach allows Netflix to deliver new features and updates quickly while maintaining high reliability and performance.

️ Trunk-Based Development

This approach involves developers integrating their changes into a shared trunk frequently, reducing the complexity of merging code and improving collaboration. Trunk-based development is linked to faster delivery cycles and higher quality outputs.

  • Facebook: Facebook employs trunk-based development to streamline code integration. Developers frequently merge their changes into the main branch, reducing merge conflicts and integration pain. This practice supports Facebook’s fast-paced release cycles, enabling frequent updates without compromising stability.
  • Etsy: Etsy has adopted trunk-based development to foster collaboration and accelerate delivery. By continuously integrating code into the main branch, Etsy’s development teams can quickly address issues and deliver new features, enhancing their agility and responsiveness to market demands.

️Loosely Coupled Architectures

Designing systems as loosely coupled services or microservices helps teams develop, deploy, and scale components independently. This architecture enhances system resilience and flexibility, enabling faster and more reliable updates.

  • Amazon: Amazon’s architecture is built around microservices, allowing teams to develop, deploy, and scale services independently. This decoupled architecture enhances system resilience and flexibility, enabling Amazon to innovate rapidly and handle high traffic volumes efficiently.
  • Spotify: Spotify uses microservices to ensure that different parts of its application can be updated independently. This architecture allows Spotify to scale its services globally, providing a reliable and high-quality user experience even during peak usage times.

️Automated Testing

Automated testing is critical for maintaining high-quality code and ensuring that new changes do not introduce defects. This practice supports continuous delivery by providing immediate feedback on code quality.

  • Microsoft: Microsoft has integrated automated testing into its development pipeline for products like Azure. Automated unit, integration, and end-to-end tests ensure that new code meets quality standards before it is deployed, reducing the risk of defects and improving overall software quality.
  • Airbnb: Airbnb relies heavily on automated testing to maintain the quality of its platform. By incorporating automated tests into their CI/CD pipeline, Airbnb can rapidly identify and address issues, ensuring that new features are delivered without introducing bugs.

️Monitoring and Observability

Implementing robust monitoring and observability practices allows teams to gain insights into system performance and user behavior. These practices help in quickly identifying and resolving issues, improving system reliability and user satisfaction.

  • LinkedIn: LinkedIn has developed a comprehensive observability platform that provides real-time insights into system performance and user behavior. This platform helps LinkedIn quickly identify and resolve issues, improving system reliability and enhancing the user experience.
  • Uber: Uber uses advanced monitoring and observability tools to track the performance of its services. These tools provide detailed metrics and alerts, enabling Uber to proactively manage system health and ensure a seamless experience for users.

️Infrastructure as Code (IaC)

Using IaC enables teams to manage and provision infrastructure through code, making the process more efficient, repeatable, and less prone to human error. IaC practices contribute to faster, more consistent deployment of infrastructure resources.

  • Capital One: Capital One has adopted Infrastructure as Code to automate the provisioning and management of its cloud infrastructure. Using tools like AWS CloudFormation and Terraform, Capital One ensures consistency, reduces manual errors, and accelerates infrastructure deployment.
  • Shopify: Shopify employs IaC to manage its infrastructure across multiple cloud providers. This approach allows Shopify to maintain a consistent and repeatable deployment process, supporting rapid scaling and reducing the time required to provision new environments.

The Role of Metrics and Insights

Metrics are vital for guiding teams and driving continuous improvement. However, they should be used to inform and guide rather than set rigid targets, in accordance with Goodhart’s law. Here’s why metrics are crucial:

  • Promoting Accountability and Transparency: Metrics foster a culture of ownership and responsibility, creating transparency and shared goals within teams.
  • Enabling Data-Driven Decisions: Metrics provide objective data for evaluating processes, identifying inefficiencies, and implementing improvements.
  • Facilitating Collaboration and Communication: Shared metrics create a common understanding, making it easier for teams to collaborate effectively.
  • Supporting Continuous Improvement: Regularly measuring and analyzing performance helps teams identify trends, address inefficiencies, and continuously improve.

SEI Platform as Highlighted by Gartner

The Software Engineering Intelligence(SEI) platforms like Typo , as highlighted in Gartner’s research, plays a pivotal role in advancing DevOps practices. The SEI platform provides tools and frameworks that help organizations assess their software engineering capabilities and identify areas for improvement. This platform emphasizes the importance of integrating DevOps principles into the entire software development lifecycle, from initial planning to deployment and maintenance.

Gartner’s analysis indicates that organizations leveraging the SEI platform see significant improvements in their DevOps maturity, leading to enhanced performance, reduced time to market, and increased customer satisfaction. The platform’s comprehensive approach ensures that DevOps practices are not just implemented but are continuously optimized to meet evolving business needs.


The State of DevOps Report 2023 by DORA offers critical insights into the current state of DevOps, emphasizing the importance of culture, user focus, technical capabilities, cloud flexibility, and equitable work distribution.

Further Reading

For those interested in delving deeper into the State of DevOps Report 2023 and related topics, here are some recommended resources:

These resources provide extensive insights into DevOps principles and practices, offering practical guidance for organizations aiming to enhance their DevOps capabilities and achieve greater success in their software delivery processes.

How to Calculate Cycle Time

Cycle time is one of the important metrics in software development. It measures the time taken from the start to the completion of a process, providing insights into the efficiency and productivity of teams. Understanding and optimizing cycle time can significantly improve overall performance and customer satisfaction.

This blog will guide you through the precise cycle time calculation, highlighting its importance and providing practical steps to measure and optimize it effectively.

What is Cycle Time?

Cycle time measures the total elapsed time taken to complete a specific task or work item from the beginning to the end of the process.

  • The “Coding” stage represents the time taken by developers to write and complete the code changes.
  • The “Pickup” stage denotes the time spent before a pull request is assigned for review.
  • The “Review” stage encompasses the time taken for peer review and feedback on the pull request.
  • Finally, the “Merge” stage shows the duration from the approval of the pull request to its integration into the main codebase.

Screenshot 2024-03-16 at 1.14.10 AM.png

It is important to differentiate cycle time from other related metrics such as lead time, which includes all delays and waiting periods, and takt time, which is the rate at which a product needs to be completed to meet customer demand. Understanding these differences is crucial for accurately measuring and optimizing cycle time.

Components of Cycle Time Calculation

To calculate total cycle time, you need to consider several components:

  • Net production time: The total time available for production, excluding breaks, maintenance, and downtime.
  • Work items and task duration: Specific tasks or work items and the time taken to complete each.
  • Historical data: Past data on task durations and production times to ensure accurate calculations.

Step-by-Step Guide to Calculating Cycle Time

Step 1: Identify the start and end points of the process:

Clearly define the beginning and end of the process you are measuring. This could be initiating and completing a task in a project management tool.

Step 2: Gather the necessary data

Collect data on task durations and time tracking. Use tools like time-tracking software to ensure accurate data collection.

Step 3: Calculate net production time

Net production time is the total time available for production minus any non-productive time. For example, if a team works 8 hours daily but takes 1 hour for breaks and meetings, the net production time is 7 hours.

Step 4: Apply the cycle time formula

The formula for cycle time is:

Cycle Time = Net Production Time / Number of Work Items Completed

Cycle Time= Number of Work Items Completed / Net Production Time

Example calculation

If a team has a net production time of 35 hours in a week and completes 10 tasks, the cycle time is:

Cycle Time = 35 hours / 10 tasks = 3.5 hours per task

Cycle Time= 10 tasks / 35 hours =3.5 hours per task

An ideal cycle time should be less than 48 hours. Shorter cycle times in software development indicate that teams can quickly respond to requirements, deliver features faster, and adapt to changes efficiently, reflecting agile and responsive development practices.

Longer cycle times in software development typically indicates several potential issues or conditions within the development process. This can lead to increased costs and delayed delivery of features.

Accounting for Variations in Work Item Complexity

When calculating cycle time, it is crucial to account for variations in the complexity and size of different work items. Larger or more complex tasks can skew the average cycle time. To address this, categorize tasks by size or complexity and calculate cycle time for each category separately.

Use of Control Charts

Control charts are a valuable tool for visualizing cycle time data and identifying trends or anomalies. You can quickly spot variations and investigate their causes by plotting cycle times on a control chart.

Statistical Analysis

Performing statistical analysis on cycle time data can provide deeper insights into process performance. Metrics such as standard deviation and percentiles help understand the distribution and variability of cycle times, enabling more precise optimization efforts.

Tools and Techniques for Accurate Measurement

In order to effectively track task durations and completion times, it’s important to utilize time tracking tools and software such as Jira, Trello, or Asana. These tools can provide a systematic approach to managing tasks and projects by allowing team members to log their time and track task durations consistently.

Consistent data collection is essential for accurate time tracking. Encouraging all team members to consistently log their time and task durations ensures that the data collected is reliable and can be used for analysis and decision-making.

Visual management techniques, such as implementing Kanban boards or other visual tools, can be valuable for tracking progress and identifying bottlenecks in the workflow. These visual aids provide a clear and transparent view of task status and can help teams address any delays or issues promptly.

Optimizing cycle time involves analyzing cycle time data to identify bottlenecks in the workflow. By pinpointing areas where tasks are delayed, teams can take action to remove these bottlenecks and optimize their processes for improved efficiency.

Continuous improvement practices, such as implementing Agile and Lean methodologies, are effective for improving cycle times continuously. These practices emphasize a flexible and iterative approach to project management, allowing teams to adapt to changes and make continuous improvements to their processes.

Furthermore, studying case studies of successful cycle time reduction from industry leaders can provide valuable insights into efficient practices that have led to significant reductions in cycle times. Learning from these examples can inspire and guide teams in implementing effective strategies to reduce cycle times in their own projects and workflows.

How Typo Helps?

Typo is an innovative tool designed to enhance the precision of cycle time calculations and overall productivity.

It seamlessly integrates Git data by analyzing timestamps from commits and merges. This integration ensures that cycle time calculations are based on actual development activities, providing a robust and accurate measurement compared to relying solely on task management tools. This empowers teams with actionable insights for optimizing their workflow and enhancing productivity in software development projects.

Here’s how Typo can help:

Automated time tracking: Typo provides automated time tracking for tasks, eliminating manual entry errors and ensuring accurate data collection.

Real-time analytics: With Typo, you can access real-time analytics to monitor cycle times, identify trends, and make data-driven decisions.

Customizable dashboards: Typo offers customizable dashboards that allow you to visualize cycle time data in a way that suits your needs, making it easier to spot inefficiencies and areas for improvement.

Seamless integration: Typo integrates seamlessly with popular project management tools, ensuring that all your data is synchronized and up-to-date.

Continuous improvement support: Typo supports continuous improvement by providing insights and recommendations based on your cycle time data, helping you implement best practices and optimize your workflows.

By leveraging Typo, you can achieve more precise cycle time calculations, improving efficiency and productivity.

Common Challenges and Solutions

In dealing with variability in task durations, it’s important to use averages as well as historical data to account for the range of possible durations. By doing this, you can better anticipate and plan for potential fluctuations in timing.

When it comes to ensuring data accuracy, it’s essential to implement a system for regularly reviewing and validating data. This can involve cross-referencing data from different sources and conducting periodic audits to verify its accuracy.

Additionally, when balancing speed and quality, the focus should be on maintaining high-quality standards while optimizing cycle time to ensure customer satisfaction. This can involve continuous improvement efforts aimed at increasing efficiency without compromising the quality of the final output.

The Path Forward with Optimized Cycle Time

Accurately calculating and optimizing cycle time is essential for improving efficiency and productivity. By following the steps outlined in this blog and utilizing tools like Typo, you can gain valuable insights into your processes and make informed decisions to enhance performance. Start measuring your cycle time today and reap the benefits of precise and optimized workflows.

Gartner’s Report on Software Engineering Intelligence Platforms 2024


As a leading vendor in the software engineering intelligence (SEI) platform space, we at Typo, are pleased to present this summary report. This document synthesizes key findings from Gartner’s comprehensive analysis and incorporates our own insights to help you better understand the evolving landscape of SEI platforms. Our aim is to provide clarity on the benefits, challenges, and future directions of these platforms, highlighting their potential to revolutionize software engineering productivity and value delivery.


The Software Engineering Intelligence (SEI) platform market is rapidly growing, driven by the increasing need for software engineering leaders to use data to demonstrate their teams’ value. According to Gartner, this nascent market offers significant potential despite its current size. However, leaders face challenges such as fragmented data across multiple systems and concerns over adding new tools that may be perceived as micromanagement by their teams.

Key Findings

1. Market Growth and Challenges

  • The SEI platform market is expanding but remains in its early stages.
  • With many vendors offering similar capabilities, software engineering leaders find it challenging to navigate this evolving market.
  • There is pressure to use data to showcase team value, but data is often scattered across various systems, complicating its collection and analysis.
  • Leaders are cautious about introducing new tools into an already crowded landscape, fearing it could be seen as micromanagement, potentially eroding trust.

2. Value of SEI Platforms

  • SEI platforms can significantly enhance the collection and analysis of software engineering data, helping track key indicators of product success like value creation and developer productivity. According to McKinsey & Company, high-performing organizations utilize data-driven insights to boost developer productivity and achieve superior business outcomes.
  • These platforms offer a comprehensive view of engineering processes, enabling continuous improvement and better business alignment.

3. Market Adoption Projections

  • SEI platform adoption is projected to rise significantly, from 5% in 2024 to 50% by 2027, as organizations seek to leverage data for increased productivity and value delivery.
SEI platform adoption

4. Platform Capabilities

  • SEI platforms provide data-driven visibility into engineering teams’ use of time and resources, operational effectiveness, and progress on deliverables. They integrate data from common engineering tools and systems, offering tailored, role-specific user experiences.
  • Key capabilities include data collection, analysis, reporting, and dashboard creation. Advanced features such as AI/ML-driven insights and conversational interfaces are becoming increasingly prevalent, helping reduce cognitive load and manual tasks.


Proof of Concept (POC)

  • Engage in POC processes to verify that SEI platforms can drive measurable improvements.
  • This step ensures the chosen platform can provide actionable insights that lead to better outcomes.

Improve Data Collection and Analysis

  • Utilize SEI platforms to track essential metrics and demonstrate the value delivered by engineering teams.
  • Effective data collection and analysis are crucial for visibility into software engineering trends and for boosting productivity.

Avoid Micromanagement Perceptions

  • Involve both teams and managers in the evaluation process to ensure the platform meets everyone’s needs, mitigating fears of micromanagement.
  • Gartner emphasizes the importance of considering the needs of both practitioners and leaders to ensure broad acceptance and utility.

Strategic Planning Assumption

By 2027, the use of SEI platforms by software engineering organizations to increase developer productivity is expected to rise to 50%, up from 5% in 2024, driven by the necessity to deliver quantifiable value through data-driven insights.

Market Definition

Gartner defines SEI platforms as solutions that provide software engineering leaders with data-driven visibility into their teams’ use of time and resources, operational effectiveness, and progress on deliverables. These platforms must ingest and analyze signals from common engineering tools, offering tailored user experiences for easy data querying and trend identification.

Market Direction and Trends

Increasing Interest

There is growing interest in SEI platforms and engineering metrics. Gartner notes that client interactions on these topics doubled from 2022 to 2023, reflecting a surge in demand for data-driven insights in software engineering.

Competitive Dynamics

Existing DevOps and agile planning tools are evolving to include SEI-type features, creating competitive pressure and potential market consolidation. Vendors are integrating more sophisticated dashboards, reporting, and insights, impacting the survivability of standalone SEI platform vendors.

AI-Powered Features

SEI platforms are increasingly incorporating AI to reduce cognitive load, automate tasks, and provide actionable insights. According to Forrester, AI-driven insights can significantly enhance software quality and team efficiency by enabling proactive management strategies.

Adoption Drivers

Visibility into Engineering Data

Crucial for boosting developer productivity and achieving business outcomes. High-performing organizations leverage tools that track and report engineering metrics to enhance productivity.

Tooling Rationalization

SEI platforms can potentially replace multiple existing tools, serving as the main dashboard for engineering leadership. This consolidation simplifies the tooling landscape and enhances efficiency.

Efficiency Focus

With increased operating budgets, there is a strong focus on tools that drive efficient and effective execution, helping engineering teams improve delivery and meet performance objectives.

Market Analysis

SEI platforms address several common use cases:

Reporting and Benchmarking

Provide data-driven answers to questions about team activities and performance. Collecting and conditioning data from various engineering tools enables effective dashboards and reports, facilitating benchmarking against industry standards.

Insight Discovery

Generate insights through multivariate analysis of normalized data, such as correlations between quality and velocity. These insights help leaders make informed decisions to drive better outcomes.


Deliver actionable insights backed by recommendations. Tools may suggest policy changes or organizational structures to improve metrics like lead times. According to DORA, organizations leveraging key metrics like Deployment Frequency and Lead Time for Changes tend to have higher software delivery performance.

Improving Developer Productivity with Tools and Metrics

SEI platforms significantly enhance Developer Productivity by offering a unified view of engineering activities, enabling leaders to make informed decisions. Key benefits include:

Enhanced Visibility

SEI platforms provide a comprehensive view of engineering processes, helping leaders identify inefficiencies and areas for improvement.

Data-Driven Decisions

By collecting and analyzing data from various tools, SEI platforms offer insights that drive smarter business decisions.

Continuous Improvement

Organizations can use insights from SEI platforms to continually adjust and improve their processes, leading to higher quality software and more productive teams. This aligns with IEEE’s emphasis on benchmarking for achieving software engineering excellence.

Industry Benchmarking

SEI platforms enable benchmarking against industry standards, helping teams set realistic goals and measure their progress. This continuous improvement cycle drives sustained productivity gains.

User Experience and Customization

Personalization and customization are critical for SEI platforms, ensuring they meet the specific needs of different user personas. Tailored user experiences lead to higher adoption rates and better user satisfaction, as highlighted by IDC.


The SEI platform market is poised for significant growth, driven by the need for data-driven insights into software engineering processes. These platforms offer substantial benefits, including enhanced visibility, data-driven decision-making, and continuous improvement. As the market matures, SEI platforms will become indispensable tools for software engineering leaders, helping them demonstrate their teams’ value and drive productivity gains.

Top Representative Players in SEI


Are you considering adopting SEI recommended DORA metrics to enhance development visibility and performance outcomes?


SEI platforms represent a transformative opportunity for software engineering organizations. By leveraging these platforms, organizations can gain a competitive edge, delivering higher quality software and achieving better business outcomes. The integration of AI and machine learning further enhances these platforms’ capabilities, providing actionable insights that drive continuous improvement. As adoption increases, SEI platforms will play a crucial role in the future of software engineering, enabling leaders to make data-driven decisions and boost developer productivity.


  1. Gartner. (2024). “Software Engineering Intelligence Platforms Market Guide”.
  2. McKinsey & Company. (2023). “The State of Developer Productivity“.
  3. DevOps Research and Assessment (DORA). (2023). “Accelerate: State of DevOps Report”.
  4. Forrester Research. (2023). “AI in Software Development: Enhancing Efficiency and Quality”.
  5. IEEE Software. (2023). “Benchmarking for Software Engineering Excellence”.
  6. IDC. (2023). “Personalization in Software Engineering Tools: Driving Adoption and Satisfaction”.

Software Engineering Benchmark Report: Driving Excellence through Metrics


In today’s software engineering, the pursuit of excellence hinges on efficiency, quality, and innovation. Engineering metrics, particularly the transformative DORA (DevOps Research and Assessment) metrics, are pivotal in gauging performance. According to the 2023 State of DevOps Report, high-performing teams deploy code 46 times more frequently and are 2,555 times faster from commit to deployment than their low-performing counterparts.

However, true excellence extends beyond DORA metrics. Embracing a variety of metrics—including code quality, test coverage, infrastructure performance, and system reliability—provides a holistic view of team performance. For instance, organizations with mature DevOps practices are 24 times more likely to achieve high code quality, and automated testing can reduce defects by up to 40%.

This benchmark report offers comprehensive insights into these critical metrics, enabling teams to assess performance, set meaningful targets, and drive continuous improvement. Whether you’re a seasoned engineering leader or a budding developer, this report is a valuable resource for achieving excellence in software engineering.

Understanding Benchmark Calculations

Velocity Metrics

Velocity refers to the speed at which software development teams deliver value. The Velocity metrics gauge efficiency and effectiveness in delivering features and responding to user needs. This includes:

  • PR Cycle Time: The time taken from opening a pull request (PR) to merging it. Elite teams achieve <48 hours, while those needing focus take >180 hours.
  • Coding Time: The actual time developers spend coding. Elite teams manage this in <12 hours per PR.
  • Issue Cycle Time: Time taken to resolve issues. Top-performing teams resolve issues in <12 hours.
  • Issue Velocity: Number of issues resolved per week. Elite teams handle >25 issues weekly.
  • Mean Time To Restore: Time taken to restore service after a failure. Elite teams restore services in <1 hour.

Quality Metrics

Quality represents the standard of excellence in development processes and code quality, focusing on reliability, security, and performance. It ensures that products meet user expectations, fostering trust and satisfaction. Quality metrics include:

  • PRs Merged Without Review: Percentage of PRs merged without review. Elite teams keep this <5% to ensure quality.
  • PR Size: Size of PRs in lines of code. Elite teams maintain PRs to <250 lines.
  • Average Commits After PR Raised: Number of commits added after raising a PR. Elite teams keep this <1.
  • Change Failure Rate: Percentage of deployments causing failures. Elite teams maintain this <15%.

Throughput Metrics

Throughput measures the volume of features, tasks, or user stories delivered, reflecting the team’s productivity and efficiency in achieving objectives. Key throughput metrics are:

  • Code Changes: Number of lines of code changed. Elite teams change <100 lines per PR.
  • PRs Created: Number of PRs created per developer. Elite teams average >5 PRs per week per developer.
  • Coding Days: Number of days spent coding. Elite teams achieve this >4 days per week.
  • Merge Frequency: Frequency of PR merges. Elite teams merge >90% of PRs within a day.
  • Deployment Frequency: Frequency of code deployments. Elite teams deploy >1 time per day.

Collaboration Metrics

Collaboration signifies the cooperative effort among software development team members to achieve shared goals. It entails effective communication and collective problem-solving to deliver high-quality software products efficiently. Collaboration metrics include:

  • Time to First Comment: Time taken for the first comment on a PR. Elite teams respond within <6 hours.
  • Merge Time: Time taken to merge a PR after it is raised. Elite teams merge PRs within <4 hours.
  • PRs Reviewed: Number of PRs reviewed per developer. Elite teams review >15 PRs weekly.
  • Review Depth/PR: Number of comments per PR during the review. Elite teams average <5 comments per PR.
  • Review Summary: Overall review metrics summary including depth and speed. Elite teams keep review times and comments to a minimum to ensure efficiency and quality.

Benchmarking Structure

Performance Levels

The benchmarks are organized into the following levels of performance for each metric:

  • Elite – Top 10 Percentile
  • High – Top 30 Percentile
  • Medium – Top 60 Percentile
  • Needs Focus – Bottom 40 Percentile

These levels help teams understand where they stand in comparison to others and identify areas for improvement.

Data Sources

The data in the report is compiled from over 1,500 engineering teams and more than 2 million pull requests across the US, Europe, and Asia. This comprehensive data set ensures that the benchmarks are representative and relevant.

Implementation of Software Engineering Benchmarks

Step-by-Step Guide

  • Identify Key Metrics: Begin by identifying the key metrics that are most relevant to your team’s goals. This includes selecting from velocity, quality, throughput, and collaboration metrics.
  • Collect Data: Use tools like continuous integration/continuous deployment (CI/CD) systems, version control systems, and project management tools to collect data on the identified metrics.
  • Analyze Data: Use statistical methods and tools to analyze the collected data. This involves calculating averages, medians, percentiles, and other relevant statistics.
  • Compare Against Benchmarks: Compare your team’s metrics against industry benchmarks to identify areas of strength and areas needing improvement.
  • Set Targets: Based on the comparison, set realistic and achievable targets for improvement. Aim to move up to the next percentile level for each metric.
  • Implement Improvements: Develop and implement a plan to achieve the set targets. This may involve adopting new practices, tools, or processes.
  • Monitor Progress: Continuously monitor your team’s performance against the set targets and make adjustments as necessary.

Tools and Practices

  • Continuous Integration/Continuous Deployment (CI/CD): Automates the integration and deployment process, ensuring quick and reliable releases.
  • Agile Methodologies: Promotes iterative development, collaboration, and flexibility to adapt to changes.
  • Code Review Tools: Facilitates peer review to maintain high code quality.
  • Automated Testing Tools: Ensures comprehensive test coverage and identifies defects early in the development cycle.
  • Project Management Tools: Helps in tracking progress, managing tasks, and facilitating communication among team members.

Importance of a Metrics Program for Engineering Teams

Performance Measurement and Improvement

Engineering metrics serve as a cornerstone for performance measurement and improvement. By leveraging these metrics, teams can gain deeper insights into their processes and make data-driven decisions. This helps in:

  • Identifying Bottlenecks: Metrics highlight areas where the development process is slowing down, enabling teams to address issues proactively.
  • Measuring Progress: Regularly tracking metrics allows teams to measure their progress towards goals and make necessary adjustments.
  • Improving Efficiency: By focusing on key metrics, teams can streamline their processes and improve efficiency.

Benchmarking Against Industry Standards

Engineering metrics provide a valuable framework for benchmarking performance against industry standards. This helps teams:

  • Set Meaningful Targets: By understanding where they stand in comparison to industry peers, teams can set realistic and achievable targets.
  • Drive Continuous Improvement: Benchmarking fosters a culture of continuous improvement, motivating teams to strive for excellence.
  • Gain Competitive Advantage: Teams that consistently perform well against benchmarks are likely to deliver high-quality products faster, gaining a competitive advantage in the market.

Enhancing Team Collaboration and Communication

Metrics also play a crucial role in enhancing team collaboration and communication. By tracking collaboration metrics, teams can:

  • Identify Communication Gaps: Metrics can reveal areas where communication is lacking, enabling teams to address issues and improve collaboration.
  • Foster Teamwork: Regularly reviewing collaboration metrics encourages team members to work together more effectively.
  • Improve Problem-Solving: Better communication and collaboration lead to more effective problem-solving and decision-making.

Key Actionables

  • Adopt a Metrics Program: Implement a comprehensive metrics program to measure and improve your team’s performance.
  • Benchmark Regularly: Regularly compare your metrics against industry benchmarks to identify areas for improvement.
  • Set Realistic Goals: Based on your benchmarking results, set achievable and meaningful targets for your team.
  • Invest in Tools: Utilize tools like Typo, CI/CD systems, automated testing, and project management software to collect and analyze metrics effectively.
  • Foster a Culture of Improvement: Encourage continuous improvement by regularly reviewing metrics and making necessary adjustments.
  • Enhance Collaboration: Use collaboration metrics to identify and address communication gaps within your team.
  • Learn from High-Performing Teams: Study the practices of high-performing teams to identify strategies that can be adapted to your team.


Delivering quickly isn’t easy. It’s tough dealing with technical challenges and tight deadlines. But leaders in engineering guide their teams well. They encourage creativity and always look for ways to improve. Metrics are like helpful guides. They show us where we’re doing well and where we can do better. With metrics, teams set goals and see how they measure up to others. It’s like having a map to success.

With strong leaders, teamwork, and using metrics wisely, engineering teams can overcome challenges and achieve great things in software engineering. This Software Engineering Benchmarks Report provides valuable insights into their current performance, empowering them to strategize effectively for future success. Predictability is essential for driving significant improvements. A consistent workflow allows teams to make steady progress in the right direction.

By standardizing processes and practices, teams of all sizes can streamline operations and scale effectively. This fosters faster development cycles, streamlined processes, and high-quality code. Typo has saved significant hours and costs for development teams, leading to better quality code and faster deployments.

You can start building your metrics today with Typo for FREE. Our focus is to help teams ship reliable software faster.

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How to improve your Sprint Review meeting

Sprint Review Meetings are a cornerstone of Agile and Scrum methodologies, serving as a crucial touchpoint for teams to showcase their progress, gather feedback, and align on the next steps. However, many teams struggle to make the most of these meetings. This blog will explore how to enhance your Sprint Review Meetings to ensure they are effective, engaging, and productive.

What is the purpose of Sprint Review Meetings?

The Sprint Review Meetings are meant to evaluate the progress made during a sprint, review the completed work, collect stakeholder feedback, and discuss the upcoming sprints. Key participants include the Scrum team, the Product Owner, key stakeholders, and occasionally the Scrum Master.

It’s important to differentiate Sprint Reviews from Sprint Retrospectives. While the former focuses on what was achieved and gathering feedback, the latter centers on process improvements and team dynamics.

Preparation is key

Preparation can make or break a Sprint Review Meeting. Ensuring that the team is ready involves several steps.

  • Ensure that the sprint review agenda is clear.
  • Ensure that the development team is fully prepared to discuss their individual contributions and any challenges they may have encountered. Everyone needs to be ready to actively participate in the discussion.
  • Set up a demo environment that is stable, accessible, and conducive to effective demonstrations. It’s crucial that the environment is reliable and allows for seamless presentations.
  • Collect and organize all pertinent materials and data, including user stories, acceptance criteria, and metrics that demonstrate progress. Having these resources readily available will help facilitate discussions and provide clarity on the project’s status.

Effective collaboration and communication

Encouraging direct collaboration between stakeholders and teams is essential for the success of any project. It is important to create an environment where open communication is not only encouraged but also valued.

This means avoiding the use of excessive technical jargon, which can make non-technical stakeholders feel excluded. Instead, strive to facilitate clear and transparent communication that allows all voices to be heard and valued. Providing a platform for open and honest feedback will ensure that everyone’s perspectives are considered, leading to a more inclusive and effective collaborative process.

Structure and agenda of a productive Sprint Review

It is crucial to have a clearly defined agenda for a productive Sprint Review. This includes sharing the agenda well in advance of the meeting, and clearly outlining the main topics of discussion. It’s also important to allocate specific time slots for each segment of the meeting to ensure that the review remains efficient.

The agenda should include discussions on completed work, work that was not completed, and the next steps to be taken. This level of detail and structure helps to ensure that the Sprint Review is focused and productive.

Demonstration of work done

When presenting completed work, it’s important to ensure that the demonstration is engaging and interactive. To achieve this, consider the following best practices:

  • Emphasize Value: Focus on the value delivered by the completed work and how it meets the specific needs of stakeholders. Highlighting the positive impact and benefits of the work will help stakeholders understand its significance.
  • Interactive Demos: Encourage stakeholders to actively engage with the product or solution being presented. Providing a hands-on experience can help stakeholders better understand its functionality and benefits. This can be achieved through demonstrations, simulations, or interactive presentations.
  • Outcome-Oriented Approach: Instead of solely focusing on the features of the completed work, emphasize the outcomes and value created. Highlight the tangible results and benefits that have been achieved, making it clear how the work contributes to overall objectives and goals.

By following these best practices, you can ensure that the demonstration of completed work is not only informative but also compelling and impactful for stakeholders.

Gathering and incorporating feedback

Effective feedback collection is crucial for continuous improvement:

  • Eliciting Constructive Feedback: Use techniques like open-ended questions to draw out detailed responses.
  • Active Listening: Show stakeholders their feedback is valued and taken seriously.
  • Documenting Feedback: Record feedback systematically and ensure it is actionable and prioritized for future sprints.

Questions to ask during the Sprint Review meeting?

The Sprint Review Meeting is an important collaborative meeting where team members, engineering leaders, and stakeholders can review previous and discuss key pointers. Below are a few questions that need to be asked during this review meeting:

Product review

  • What was accomplished during the sprint?
  • Are there any items that need to be completed? Why wasn’t it finished?
  • How does the completed work align with the sprint goal?
  • Were there any unexpected challenges or obstacles that arose?

Team performance

  • Did the team meet the sprint goal? If not, why?
  • What went well during this sprint?
  • What didn’t go well during this sprint?
  • Were there any bottlenecks or challenges that affected productivity?

Planning for the next sprint

  • What are the priorities for the next sprint?
  • Are there any new user stories or tasks that must be added to the backlog?
  • What are the critical tasks that must be completed in the next sprint?
  • How should we address any carry-over work from this sprint?

Using tools and technology effectively

Use collaborative tools to improve the review process:

  • Collaborative Tools: Tools such as Typo can help facilitate interactive and visual discussions.
  • Visual Aids: Incorporate charts, graphs, and other visual aids to make data more accessible.
  • Record Sessions: Think about recording the session for those unable to attend and for future reference.

How Typo can enhance your Sprint Review meeting?

Typo is a collaborative tool designed to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of team meetings, including Sprint Review Meetings. Our sprint analysis feature uses data from Git and issue management tools to provide insights into how your team is working. You can see how long tasks take, how often they’re blocked, and where bottlenecks occur. It allows to track and analyze the team’s progress throughout a sprint and provides valuable insights into work progress, work breakup, team velocity, developer workload, and issue cycle time. This information can help you identify areas for improvement and ensure your team is on track to meet their goals.

Key components of Sprint Analysis tool

Work progress

Work progress represents the percentage breakdown of issue tickets or story points in the selected sprint according to their current workflow status.

Work breakup

Work breakup represents the percentage breakdown of issue tickets in the current sprint according to their issue type or labels.

Work breakup

Team velocity

Team Velocity represents the average number of completed issue tickets or story points across each sprint.

Developer workload

Developer workload represents the count of issue tickets or story points completed by each developer against the total issue tickets/story points assigned to them in the current sprint.

Issue cycle time

Issue cycle time represents the average time it takes for an issue ticket to transition from the ‘In Progress’ state to the ‘Completion’ state.

Scope creep

Scope creep is one of the common project management risks. It represents the new project requirements that are added to a project beyond what was originally planned.

Scope creep

Here’s how Typo can be used to improve Sprint Review Meetings:

Agenda setting and sharing

Typo allows you to create and share detailed agendas with all meeting participants ahead of time. For Sprint Review Meetings, you can outline the key elements such as:

  • Review of completed work
  • Demonstration of new features
  • Feedback session
  • Planning next steps

Sharing the agenda in advance ensures everyone knows what to expect and can prepare accordingly.

Real-time collaboration

Typo enhances sprint review meetings by providing real-time collaboration capabilities and comprehensive metrics. Live data access and interactive dashboards ensure everyone has the most current information and can engage in dynamic discussions. Key metrics such as velocity, issue tracking, and cycle time provide valuable insights into team performance and workflow efficiency. This transparency and data-driven approach facilitate informed decision-making, improve accountability, and support continuous improvement, making sprint reviews more productive and collaborative.

Feedback collection and management

Typo makes it easy to collect, organize, and prioritize valuable feedback. Users can utilize feedback forms or surveys integrated within Typo to gather structured feedback from stakeholders. The platform allows for real-time documentation of feedback, ensuring that no valuable insights are lost. Additionally, users can categorize and tag feedback for easier tracking and action planning.

Visual aids and presentation tools

Use Typo’s presentation tools to enhance the demonstration of completed work. Incorporate charts, graphs, and other visual aids to make the progress more understandable and engaging. Use interactive elements to allow stakeholders to explore the new features hands-on.

Continuous improvement

In Sprint Review Meetings, Typo can be used to drive continuous improvement by analyzing feedback trends, identifying recurring issues or areas for improvement, encouraging team members to reflect on past meetings and suggest enhancements, and implementing data-driven insights to make each Sprint Review more effective than the last.

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Improve your Sprint Review meetings with the right steps

A well-executed Sprint Review Meeting can significantly enhance your team’s productivity and alignment with stakeholders. By focusing on preparation, effective communication, structured agendas, interactive demos, and continuous improvement, you can transform your Sprint Reviews into a powerful tool for success. Clear goals should be established at the outset of each meeting to provide direction and focus for the team.

Remember, the key is to foster a collaborative environment where valuable feedback is provided and acted upon, driving your team toward continuous improvement and excellence. Integrating tools like Typo can provide the structure and capabilities needed to elevate your Sprint Review Meetings, ensuring they are both efficient and impactful.

SPACE Framework: How to Measure Developer Productivity

In today’s fast-paced software development world, understanding and improving developer productivity is more crucial than ever. One framework that has gained prominence for its comprehensive approach to measuring and enhancing productivity is the SPACE Framework. This framework, developed by industry experts and backed by extensive research, offers a multi-dimensional perspective on productivity that transcends traditional metrics.

This blog delves deep into the genesis of the SPACE Framework, its components, and how it can be effectively implemented to boost developer productivity. We’ll also explore real-world success stories of companies that have benefited from adopting this framework.

The genesis of the SPACE Framework

The SPACE Framework was introduced by researchers Nicole Forsgren, Margaret-Anne Storey, Chandra Maddila, Thomas Zimmermann, Brian Houck, and Jenna Butler. Their work was published in a paper titled “The SPACE of Developer Productivity: There’s More to it than You Think!” emphasising that a single metric cannot measure developer productivity. Instead, it should be viewed through multiple lenses to capture a holistic picture.

Components of the SPACE Framework

The SPACE Framework is an acronym that stands for:

  1. Satisfaction and Well-being
  2. Performance
  3. Activity
  4. Communication and Collaboration
  5. Efficiency and Flow

Each component represents a critical aspect of developer productivity, ensuring a balanced approach to measurement and improvement.

Detailed breakdown of the SPACE Framework

1. Satisfaction and Well-being

Definition: This dimension focuses on how satisfied and happy developers are with their work and environment. It also considers their overall well-being, which includes factors like work-life balance, stress levels, and job fulfillment.

Why It Matters: Happy developers are more engaged, creative, and productive. Ensuring high satisfaction and well-being can reduce burnout and turnover, leading to a more stable and effective team.

Metrics to Consider:

  • Employee satisfaction surveys
  • Work-life balance scores
  • Burnout indices
  • Turnover rates

2. Performance

Definition: Performance measures the outcomes of developers’ work, including the quality and impact of the software they produce. This includes assessing code quality, deployment frequency, and the ability to meet user needs.

Why It Matters: High performance indicates that the team is delivering valuable software efficiently. It helps in maintaining a competitive edge and ensuring customer satisfaction.

Metrics to Consider:

  • Code quality metrics (e.g., number of bugs, code review scores)
  • Deployment frequency
  • Customer satisfaction ratings
  • Feature adoption rates

3. Activity

Definition: Activity tracks the actions developers take, such as the number of commits, code reviews, and feature development. This component focuses on the volume and types of activities rather than their outcomes.

Why It Matters: Monitoring activity helps understand workload distribution and identify potential bottlenecks or inefficiencies in the development process.

Metrics to Consider:

  • Number of commits per developer
  • Code review participation
  • Task completion rates
  • Meeting attendance

4. Communication and Collaboration

Definition: This dimension assesses how effectively developers interact with each other and with other stakeholders. It includes evaluating the quality of communication channels and collaboration tools used.

Why It Matters: Effective communication and collaboration are crucial for resolving issues quickly, sharing knowledge, and fostering a cohesive team environment. Poor communication can lead to misunderstandings and project delays.

Metrics to Consider:

  • Frequency and quality of team meetings
  • Use of collaboration tools (e.g., Slack, Jira)
  • Cross-functional team interactions
  • Feedback loops

5. Efficiency and Flow

Definition: Efficiency and flow measure how smoothly the development process operates, including how well developers can focus on their tasks without interruptions. It also looks at the efficiency of the processes and tools in place.

Why It Matters: High efficiency and flow indicate that developers can work without unnecessary disruptions, leading to higher productivity and job satisfaction. It also helps in identifying and eliminating waste in the process.

Metrics to Consider:

  • Cycle time (time from task start to completion)
  • Time spent in meetings vs. coding
  • Context switching frequency
  • Tool and process efficiency

Implementing the SPACE Framework in real life

Implementing the SPACE Framework requires a strategic approach, involving the following steps:

Establish baseline metrics

Before making any changes, establish baseline metrics for each SPACE component. Use existing tools and methods to gather initial data.

Actionable Steps:

  • Conduct surveys to measure satisfaction and well-being.
  • Use code quality tools to assess performance.
  • Track activity through version control systems.
  • Analyze communication patterns via collaboration tools.
  • Measure efficiency and flow using project management software.

Set clear goals

Define what success looks like for each component of the SPACE Framework. Set achievable and measurable goals.

Actionable Steps:

  • Increase employee satisfaction scores by 10% within six months.
  • Reduce bug rates by 20% over the next quarter.
  • Improve code review participation by 15%.
  • Enhance cross-team communication frequency.
  • Shorten cycle time by 25%.

Implement changes

Based on the goals set, implement changes to processes, tools, and practices. This may involve adopting new tools, changing workflows, or providing additional training.

Actionable Steps:

  • Introduce well-being programs to improve satisfaction.
  • Adopt automated testing tools to enhance performance.
  • Encourage regular code reviews to boost activity.
  • Use collaboration tools like Slack or Microsoft Teams to improve communication.
  • Streamline processes to reduce context switching and improve flow.

Monitor and adjust

Regularly monitor the metrics to evaluate the impact of the changes. Be prepared to make adjustments as necessary to stay on track with your goals.

Actionable Steps:

  • Use dashboards to track key metrics in real time.
  • Hold regular review meetings to discuss progress.
  • Gather feedback from developers to identify areas for improvement.
  • Make iterative changes based on data and feedback.

Integrating the SPACE Framework with DORA Metrics

SPACE Dimension


DORA Metric Integration

Actionable Steps

Satisfaction and Well-being

Measures happiness, job fulfillment, and work-life balance

High deployment frequency and low lead time improve satisfaction; high failure rates increase stress

– Conduct satisfaction surveys 

– Correlate with DORA metrics

 – Implement well-being programs


Assesses the outcomes of developers’ work

Direct overlap with DORA metrics like deployment frequency and lead time

– Use DORA metrics for benchmark

– Track and improve key metrics

 – Address failure causes


Tracks volume and types of work (e.g., commits, reviews)

Frequent, high-quality activities improve deployment frequency and lead time

– Track activities and DORA metrics

 – Promote high-quality work practices

– Balance workloads

Communication and Collaboration

Evaluates effectiveness of interactions and tools

Effective communication and collaboration reduce failure rates and restoration times

– Use communication tools (e.g., Slack)

– Conduct retrospectives

 – Encourage cross-functional teams

Efficiency and Flow

Measures smoothness and efficiency of processes

Efficient workflows lead to higher deployment frequencies and shorter lead times

– Streamline processes <br> – Implement CI/CD pipelines

 – Monitor cycle times and context switching

Real-world success stories


GitHub implemented the SPACE Framework to enhance its developer productivity. By focusing on communication and collaboration, they improved their internal processes and tools, leading to a more cohesive and efficient development team. They introduced regular team-building activities and enhanced their internal communication tools, resulting in a 15% increase in developer satisfaction and a 20% reduction in project completion time.


Microsoft adopted the SPACE Framework across several development teams. They focused on improving efficiency and flow by reducing context switching and streamlining their development processes. This involved adopting continuous integration and continuous deployment (CI/CD) practices, which reduced cycle time by 30% and increased deployment frequency by 25%.

Key software engineering metrics mapped to the SPACE Framework

This table outlines key software engineering metrics mapped to the SPACE Framework, along with how they can be measured and implemented to improve developer productivity and overall team effectiveness.


Key Metrics

Measurement Tools/Methods

Implementation Steps

Satisfaction and Well-being

Employee Satisfaction Score

Employee surveys, engagement platforms (e.g.,Typo)

– Conduct regular surveys

– Analyze results to identify pain points

– Implement programs for well-being and work-life balance

Work-life Balance

Survey responses, self-reported hours

Employee surveys, time tracking tools (e.g., Toggl)

– Encourage flexible hours and remote work

– Monitor workload distribution

Burnout Index

Burnout survey scores

Surveys, tools like Typo, Gallup Q12

– Monitor and address high burnout scores

– Offer mental health resources

Turnover Rate

Percentage of staff leaving

HR systems, exit interviews

– Analyze reasons for turnover

– Improve work conditions based on feedback


Key Metrics

Measurement Tools/Methods

Implementation Steps

Code Quality

Number of bugs, code review scores

Static analysis tools (e.g., Typo, SonarQube), code review platforms (e.g., GitHub)

– Implement code quality tools

– Conduct regular code reviews

Deployment Frequency

Number of deployments per time period

CI/CD pipelines (e.g., Jenkins, GitLab CI/CD)

– Adopt CI/CD practices

– Automate deployment processes

Lead Time for Changes

Time from commit to production

CI/CD pipelines, version control systems (e.g., Git)

– Streamline deployment pipeline

– Optimize testing processes

Change Failure Rate

Percentage of failed deployments

Incident tracking tools (e.g., PagerDuty, Jira)

– Implement thorough testing and QA

– Analyze and learn from failures

Time to Restore Service

Time to recover from incidents

Incident tracking tools (e.g., PagerDuty, Jira)

– Develop robust incident response plans

– Conduct post-incident reviews


Key Metrics

Measurement Tools/Methods

Implementation Steps

Number of Commits

Commits per developer

Version control systems (e.g., Git)

– Track commits per developer

– Ensure commits are meaningful

Code Review Participation

Reviews per developer

Code review platforms (e.g., GitHub, Typo)

– Encourage regular participation in reviews

– Recognize and reward contributions

Task Completion Rates

Completed tasks vs. assigned tasks

Project management tools (e.g., Jira, Trello)

– Monitor task completion

– Address bottlenecks and redistribute workloads

Meeting Attendance

Attendance records

Calendar tools, project management tools

– Schedule necessary meetings

– Ensure meetings are productive and focused

Communication and Collaboration

Key Metrics

Measurement Tools/Methods

Implementation Steps

Team Meeting Frequency

Number of team meetings

Calendar tools, project management tools (e.g., Jira)

– Schedule regular team meetings

– Ensure meetings are structured and purposeful

Use of Collaboration Tools

Activity in tools (e.g., Slack messages, Jira comments)

Collaboration tools (e.g., Slack, Jira)

– Promote use of collaboration tools

– Provide training on tool usage

Cross-functional Interactions

Number of interactions with other teams

Project management tools, communication tools

– Encourage cross-functional projects

– Facilitate regular cross-team meetings

Feedback Loops

Number and quality of feedback instances

Feedback tools, retrospectives

– Implement regular feedback sessions

– Act on feedback to improve processes

Efficiency and Flow

Key Metrics

Measurement Tools/Methods

Implementation Steps

Cycle Time

Time from task start to completion

Project management tools (e.g., Jira)

– Monitor cycle times 

– Identify and remove bottlenecks

Time Spent in Meetings vs. Coding

Hours logged in meetings vs. coding

Time tracking tools, calendar tools

– Optimize meeting schedules

– Minimize unnecessary meetings

Context Switching Frequency

Number of task switches per day

Time tracking tools, self-reporting

– Reduce unnecessary interruptions

– Promote focused work periods

Tool and Process Efficiency

Time saved using tools/processes

Productivity tools, surveys

– Regularly review tool/process efficiency

– Implement improvements based on feedback

What engineering leaders can do

Engineering leaders play a crucial role in the successful implementation of the SPACE Framework. Here are some actionable steps they can take:

Promote a culture of continuous improvement

Encourage a mindset of continuous improvement among the team. This involves being open to feedback and constantly seeking ways to enhance productivity and well-being.

Actionable Steps:

  • Regularly solicit feedback from team members.
  • Celebrate small wins and improvements.
  • Provide opportunities for professional development and growth.

Invest in the right tools and processes

Ensure that developers have access to the tools and processes that enable them to work efficiently and effectively.

Actionable Steps:

  • Conduct regular tool audits to ensure they meet current needs.
  • Invest in training programs for new tools and technologies.
  • Streamline processes to eliminate unnecessary steps and reduce bottlenecks.

Foster collaboration and communication

Create an environment where communication and collaboration are prioritized. This can lead to better problem-solving and more innovative solutions.

Actionable Steps:

  • Organize regular team-building activities.
  • Use collaboration tools to facilitate better communication.
  • Encourage cross-functional projects to enhance team interaction.

Prioritize well-being and satisfaction

Recognize the importance of developer well-being and satisfaction. Implement programs and policies that support a healthy work-life balance.

Actionable Steps:

  • Offer flexible working hours and remote work options.
  • Provide access to mental health resources and support.
  • Recognize and reward achievements and contributions.


The SPACE Framework offers a holistic and actionable approach to understanding and improving developer productivity. By focusing on satisfaction and well-being, performance, activity, communication and collaboration, and efficiency and flow, organizations can create a more productive and fulfilling work environment for their developers.

Implementing this framework requires a strategic approach, clear goal setting, and ongoing monitoring and adjustment. Real-world success stories from companies like GitHub and Microsoft demonstrate the potential benefits of adopting the SPACE Framework.

Engineering leaders have a pivotal role in driving this change. By promoting a culture of continuous improvement, investing in the right tools and processes, fostering collaboration and communication, and prioritizing well-being and satisfaction, they can significantly enhance developer productivity and overall team success.

Understanding DORA Metrics: Cycle Time vs Lead Time in Software Development

In the dynamic world of software development, where speed and quality are paramount, measuring efficiency is critical. DevOps Research and Assessment (DORA) metrics provide a valuable framework for gauging the performance of software development teams. Two of the most crucial DORA metrics are cycle time and lead time. This blog post will delve into these metrics, explaining their definitions, differences, and significance in optimizing software development processes. To start with, here’s the most simple explanation of the two metrics –

What is Lead Time?

Lead time refers to the total time it takes to deliver a feature or code change to production, from the moment it’s first conceived as a user story or feature request. In simpler terms, it’s the entire journey of a feature, encompassing various stages like:

  • Initiating a user story or feature request: This involves capturing the user’s needs and translating them into a clear and concise user story or feature request within the backlog.
  • Development and coding: Once prioritized, the development team works on building the feature, translating the user story into functional code.
  • Testing and quality assurance: Rigorous testing ensures the feature functions as intended and meets quality standards. This may involve unit testing, integration testing, and user acceptance testing (UAT).
  • Deployment to production: The final stage involves deploying the feature to production, making it available to end users.

What is Cycle Time?

Cycle time, on the other hand, focuses specifically on the development stage. It measures the average time it takes for a developer’s code to go from being committed to the codebase to being PR merged. Unlike lead time, which considers the entire delivery pipeline, cycle time is an internal metric that reflects the development team’s efficiency. Here’s a deeper dive into the stages that contribute to cycle time:

  • The “Coding” stage represents the time taken by developers to write and complete the code changes.
  • The “Pickup” stage denotes the time spent before a pull request is assigned for review.
  • The “Review” stage encompasses the time taken for peer review and feedback on the pull request.
  • Finally, the “Merge” stage shows the duration from the approval of the pull request to its integration into the main codebase.

Screenshot 2024-03-16 at 1.14.10 AM.png

Key Differences between Lead Time and Cycle Time

Here’s a table summarizing the key distinctions between lead time and cycle time, along with additional pointers to consider for a more nuanced understanding:


Lead Time

Cycle Time


Entire delivery pipeline

Development stage

Influencing Factors

– Feature complexity (design, planning, testing) 

– Prioritization decisions (backlog management) 

– External approvals (design, marketing) – External dependencies (APIs, integrations) 

– Waiting for infrastructure provisioning

– Developer availability 

– Code quality issues (code reviews, bug fixes) 

– Development tooling and infrastructure maturity (build times, deployment automation)


Higher variability due to external factors

Lower variability due to focus on internal processes

Actionable Insights

Requires further investigation to pinpoint delays (specific stage analysis)

Provides more direct insights for development team improvement (code review efficiency, build optimization)

Metrics Used

– Time in backlog 

– Time in design/planning 

– Time in development 

– Time in testing (unit, integration, UAT) – Deployment lead time

– Coding time

– Code review time 

– Merge time

Improvement Strategies

– Backlog refinement and prioritization – Collaboration with stakeholders for faster approvals 

– Manage external dependencies effectively 

– Optimize infrastructure provisioning processes

– Improve developer skills and availability 

– Implement code review best practices 

– Automate build and deployment processes

Scenario: Implementing a Login with Social Media Integration Feature

Imagine a software development team working on a new feature: allowing users to log in with their social media accounts. Let’s calculate the lead time and cycle time for this feature.

Lead Time (Total Time)

  • User Story Creation (1 Day): A product manager drafts a user story outlining the login with social media functionality.
  • Estimation & Backlog (2 Days): The development team discusses the complexity, estimates the effort (in days) to complete the feature, and adds it to the product backlog.
  • Development & Testing (5 Days): Once prioritized, developers start coding, implementing the social media login functionality, and writing unit tests.
  • Code Review & Merge (1 Day): A code review is conducted, feedback is addressed, and the code is merged into the main branch.
  • Deployment & Release (1 Day): The code is deployed to a staging environment, tested thoroughly, and finally released to production.

Lead Time Calculation

Lead Time = User Story Creation + Estimation + Development & Testing + Code Review & Merge + Deployment & Release Lead Time = 1 Day + 2 Days + 5 Days + 1 Day + 1 Day Lead Time = 10 Days

Cycle Time (Development Focused Time)

This considers only the time the development team actively worked on the feature (excluding waiting periods).

  • Coding (3 Days): The actual time developers spent writing and testing the code for the social media login functionality.
  • Code Review (1 Day): The time taken for the code reviewer to analyze and provide feedback.

Cycle Time Calculation

Cycle Time = Coding + Code Review Cycle Time = 3 Days + 1 Day Cycle Time = 4 Days


  • Lead Time (10 Days): This represents the entire time from initial idea to the feature being available to users.
  • Cycle Time (4 Days): This reflects the development team’s internal efficiency in completing the feature once they started working on it.

By monitoring and analyzing both lead time and cycle time, the development team can identify areas for improvement. Reducing lead time could involve streamlining the user story creation or backlog management process. Lowering cycle time might suggest implementing pair programming for faster collaboration or optimizing the code review process.

Optimizing Lead Time and Cycle Time: A Strategic Approach

By understanding the distinct roles of lead time and cycle time, development teams can implement targeted strategies for improvement:

Lead Time Reduction

  • Backlog Refinement: Regularly prioritize and refine the backlog, ensuring user stories are clear, concise, and ready for development.
  • Collaboration and Communication: Foster seamless communication between developers, product owners, and other stakeholders to avoid delays and rework caused by misunderstandings.
  • Streamlined Approvals: Implement efficient approval processes for user stories and code changes to minimize bottlenecks.
  • Dependency Management: Proactively identify and address dependencies on external teams or resources to prevent delays.

Cycle Time Reduction

  • Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (CI/CD): Automate testing and deployment processes using CI/CD pipelines to expedite code delivery to production.
  • Pair Programming: Encourage pair programming sessions to promote knowledge sharing, improve code quality, and identify bugs early in the development cycle.
  • Code Reviews: Implement efficient code review practices to catch potential issues and ensure code adheres to quality standards.
  • Focus on Work in Progress (WIP) Limits: Limit the number of concurrent tasks per developer to minimize context switching and improve focus.
  • Invest in Developer Tools and Training: Equip developers with the latest tools and training opportunities to enhance their development efficiency and knowledge.

The synergy of Lead Time and Cycle Time

Lead time and cycle time, while distinct concepts, are not mutually exclusive. Optimizing one metric ultimately influences the other. By focusing on lead time reduction strategies, teams can streamline the overall development process, leading to shorter cycle times. Consequently, improving development efficiency through cycle time reduction translates to faster feature delivery, ultimately decreasing lead time. This synergistic relationship highlights the importance of tracking and analyzing both metrics to gain a holistic view of software delivery performance.

Leveraging DORA metrics for Continuous Improvement

Lead time and cycle time are fundamental DORA metrics that provide valuable insights into software development efficiency and customer experience. By understanding their distinctions and implementing targeted improvement strategies, development teams can optimize their workflows and deliver high-quality features faster.

This data-driven approach, empowered by DORA metrics, is crucial for achieving continuous improvement in the fast-paced world of software development. Remember, DORA metrics extend beyond lead time and cycle time. Deployment frequency and change failure rate are additional metrics that offer valuable insights into the software delivery pipeline’s health. By tracking a comprehensive set of DORA metrics, development teams can gain a holistic view of their software delivery performance and identify areas for improvement across the entire value stream.

This empowers teams to:

  • Increase software delivery velocity by streamlining development processes and accelerating feature deployment.
  • Enhance software quality and reliability by implementing robust testing practices and reducing the likelihood of bugs in production.
  • Reduce development costs through efficient resource allocation, minimized rework, and faster time-to-market.
  • Elevate customer satisfaction by delivering features faster and responding to feedback more promptly.

By evaluating all these DORA metrics holistically, development teams gain a comprehensive understanding of their software development performance. This allows them to identify areas for improvement across the entire delivery pipeline, leading to faster deployments, higher quality software, and ultimately, happier customers.

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