What is the Change Failure Rate in DORA metrics?

Are you familiar with the term Change Failure Rate (CFR)? It's one of the key DORA metrics in DevOps that measures the percentage of failed changes out of total implementations. This metric is pivotal in assessing the reliability of the deployment process.

What is the Change Failure Rate?

CFR, or Change Failure Rate measures the frequency at which newly deployed changes lead to failures, glitches, or unexpected outcomes in the IT environment. It reflects the stability and reliability of the entire software development and deployment lifecycle. By tracking CFR, teams can identify bottlenecks, flaws, or vulnerabilities in their processes, tools, or infrastructure that can negatively impact the quality, speed, and cost of software delivery.

Lowering CFR is a crucial goal for any organization that wants to maintain a dependable and efficient deployment pipeline. A high CFR can have serious consequences, such as delays, rework, customer dissatisfaction, revenue loss, or even security breaches. To reduce CFR, teams need to implement a comprehensive strategy involving continuous testing, monitoring, feedback loops, automation, collaboration, and culture change. By optimizing their workflows and enhancing their capabilities, teams can increase agility, resilience, and innovation while delivering high-quality software at scale.

How to Calculate Change Failure Rate?

Change failure rate measures software development reliability and efficiency. It’s related to team capacity, code complexity, and process efficiency, impacting speed and quality. To calculate CFR, follow these steps:

Identify Failed Changes: Keep track of the number of changes that resulted in failures during a specific timeframe.

Determine Total Changes Implemented: Count the total changes or deployments made during the same period.

Apply the formula:

Use the formula CFR = (Number of Failed Changes / Total Number of Changes) * 100 to calculate the Change Failure Rate as a percentage.

Here is an example: Suppose during a month:

Failed Changes = 5

Total Changes = 100

Using the formula: (5/100)*100 = 5

Therefore, the Change Failure Rate for that period is 5%.


Change failure rate

Elite performers

0% – 15%

High performers

0% – 15%

Medium performers

15% – 45%

Low performers

45% – 60%

It only considers what happens after deployment and not anything before it. 0% - 15% CFR is considered to be a good indicator of your code quality.

A low change failure rate means that the code review and deployment process needs attention. To reduce it, the team should focus on reducing deployment failures and time wasted due to delays, ensuring a smoother and more efficient software delivery performance.

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  • Set custom improvement goals for each team and track their success in real-time. Also, stay updated with nudges and alerts in Slack. 

Use Cases

Stability is pivotal in software deployment. The change Failure Rate measures the percentage of changes that fail. A high failure rate could signify inadequate testing or insufficient quality control. Enhancing testing protocols, refining code reviews, and ensuring thorough documentation can reduce the failure rate, enhancing overall stability.

Code Review Excellence

Metrics: Comments per PR and Change Failure Rate

Few Comments per PR, Low Change Failure Rate

Low comments and minimal deployment failures signify high-quality initial code submissions. This scenario highlights exceptional collaboration and communication within the team, resulting in stable deployments and satisfied end-users.

Abundant Comments per PR, Minimal Change Failure Rate

Teams with numerous comments per PR and a few deployment issues showcase meticulous review processes. Investigating these instances ensures review comments align with deployment stability concerns, ensuring constructive feedback leads to refined code.

The Essence of Change Failure Rate

Change Failure Rate (CFR) is more than just a metric and is an essential indicator of an organization's software development health. It encapsulates the core aspects of resilience and efficiency within the software development life cycle.

Reflecting Organizational Resilience

The CFR (Change Failure Rate) reflects how well an organization's software development practices can handle changes. A low CFR indicates the organization can make changes with minimal disruptions and failures. This level of resilience is a testament to the strength of their processes, showing their ability to adapt to changing requirements without difficulty.

Efficiency in Deployment Processes

Efficiency lies at the core of CFR. A low CFR indicates that the organization has streamlined its deployment processes. It suggests that changes are rigorously tested, validated, and integrated into the production environment with minimal disruptions. This efficiency is not just a numerical value, but it reflects the organization's dedication to delivering dependable software.

Early Detection of Potential Issues

A high change failure rate, on the other hand, indicates potential issues in the deployment pipeline. It serves as an early warning system, highlighting areas that might affect system reliability. Identifying and addressing these issues becomes critical in maintaining a reliable software infrastructure.

Impact on Overall System Reliability

The essence of CFR (Change Failure Rate) lies in its direct correlation with the overall reliability of a system. A high CFR indicates that changes made to the system are more likely to result in failures, which could lead to service disruptions and user dissatisfaction. Therefore, it is crucial to understand that the essence of CFR is closely linked to the end-user experience and the trustworthiness of the deployed software.

Change Failure Rate and its Importance with Organization Performance

The Change Failure Rate (CFR) is a crucial metric that evaluates how effective an organization's IT practices are. It's not just a number - it affects different aspects of organizational performance, including customer satisfaction, system availability, and overall business success. Therefore, it is important to monitor and improve it.

Assessing IT Health

Key Performance Indicator

Efficient IT processes result in a low CFR, indicating a reliable software deployment pipeline with fewer failed deployments.

Identifying Weaknesses

Organizations can identify IT weaknesses by monitoring CFR. High CFR patterns highlight areas that require attention, enabling proactive measures for software development.

Correlation with Organizational Performance

Customer Satisfaction

CFR directly influences customer satisfaction. High CFR can cause service issues, impacting end-users. Low CFR results in smooth deployments, enhancing user experience.

System Availability

The reliability of IT systems is critical for business operations. A lower CFR implies higher system availability, reducing the chances of downtime and ensuring that critical systems are consistently accessible.

Influence on Overall Business Success

Operational Efficiency

Efficient IT processes are reflected in a low CFR, which contributes to operational efficiency. This, in turn, positively affects overall business success by streamlining development workflows and reducing the time to market for new features or products.

Cost Savings

A lower CFR means fewer post-deployment issues and lower costs for resolving problems, resulting in potential revenue gains. This financial aspect is crucial to the overall success and sustainability of the organization.

Proactive Issue Resolution

Continuous Improvement

Organizations can improve software development by proactively addressing issues highlighted by CFR.

Maintaining a Robust IT Environment

Building Resilience

Organizations can enhance IT resilience by identifying and mitigating factors contributing to high CFR.

Enhancing Security

CFR indirectly contributes to security by promoting stable and reliable deployment practices. A well-maintained CFR reflects a disciplined approach to changes, reducing the likelihood of introducing vulnerabilities into the system.

Strategies for Optimizing Change Failure Rate

Implementing strategic practices can optimize the Change Failure Rate (CFR) by enhancing software development and deployment reliability and efficiency.


Automated Testing and Deployment

Implementing automated testing and deployment processes is crucial for minimizing human error and ensuring the consistency of deployments. Automated testing catches potential issues early in the development cycle, reducing the likelihood of failures in production.

Continuous Integration (CI) and Continuous Deployment (CD)

Leverage CI/CD pipelines for automated integration and deployment of code changes, streamlining the delivery process for more frequent and reliable software updates.

Continuous monitoring

Real-Time Monitoring

Establishing a robust monitoring system that detects issues in real-time during the deployment lifecycle is crucial. Continuous monitoring provides immediate feedback on the performance and stability of applications, enabling teams to promptly identify and address potential problems.

Alerting Mechanisms

Implement mechanisms to proactively alert relevant teams of anomalies or failures in the deployment pipeline. Swift response to such notifications can help minimize the potential impact on end-users.


DevOps Practices

Foster collaboration between development and operations teams through DevOps practices. Encourage cross-functional communication and shared responsibilities to create a unified software development and deployment approach.

Communication Channels

Efficient communication channels & tools facilitate seamless collaboration, ensuring alignment & addressing challenges.

Iterative Improvements

Feedback Loops

Create feedback loops in development and deployment. Collect feedback from the team, users, and monitoring tools for improvement.


It's important to have regular retrospectives to reflect on past deployments, gather insights, and refine deployment processes based on feedback. Strive for continuous improvement.

Improve Change Failure Rate for Your Engineering Teams

Empower software engineering teams with tools, training, and a culture of continuous improvement. Encourage a blame-free environment that promotes learning from failures. CFR is one of the key DORA metrics and critical performance metrics of DevOps maturity. Understanding its implications and implementing strategic optimizations enhances deployment processes, ensuring system reliability and contributing to business success.

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